Land Use Systems, Soil Texture, Control Carbon and Nitrogen Storages in the Forest Soil of UB Forest, Indonesia

Syahrul Kurniawan, Sri Rahayu Utami, Miftakhul Mukharomah, Ian A. Navarette, Budi Prasetya



Differences in land use systems may resulted in different soil cover, litter input, and soil management practices, and consequently affect to soil nutrient stock. The study aimed to assess soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storages on various soil depths from difference land use systems within UB forest. The research was conducted in UB forest, Malang – Indonesia, from April to November 2017. Soil sample was collected from four soil depths (0-0.1, 0.1-0.3, 0.3-0.5, and 0.5-1.0 m) within five land use systems, including (1) protected area; (2) pine + coffee; (3) pine + crops; (4) mahogany + coffee and (5) mahogany + crops, each with three replicate plots. Soil C and N concentrations, soil texture, and bulk density, were measured. The study showed significant difference in soil C and N storages among land use systems. In 0.5 m depth of soil, soil C and N storages was higher in protected area (64% and 53%, respectively) as compared to other land use systems. The result support clay content controls soil C and N stock, whereas vegetation determines soil N stocks. Therefore, proper management in vegetation and soil were needed to conserve soil C and N storages.


Soil C stock; Soil N stock; Soil texture; Tropical forest; Volcanic soil

Full Text:



Allen, K., Corre, M. D., Kurniawan, S., Utami, S. R., & Veldkamp, E. (2016). Spatial variability surpasses land-use change effects on soil biochemical properties of converted lowland landscapes in Sumatra, Indonesia. Geoderma, 284, 42–50.

Andika, Y. (2019). Maps of UB forest (Report No. 1). Malang, ID: Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Brawijaya.

Barber, C. V., Matthews, E., Brown, D., Brown, T. H., Curran, L., & Plume, C. (2002). The state of the forest - Indonesia. Retrieved from

Barré, P., Durand, H., Chenu, C., Meunier, P., Montagne, D., Castel, G., … Cécillon, L. (2017). Geological control of soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks at the landscape scale. Geoderma, 285, 50–56.

Black, P. E. (2004). Forest and wildland watershed functions. In G. G. Ice & J. D. Stednick (Eds.), A century of forest and wildland watershed lessons (pp. 1-18). Bethesda, Md.: Society of American Foresters.

Crawley, M. J. (2007). The R book. Chichester, EN: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Retrieved from

de Blécourt, M., Brumme, R., Xu, J., Corre, M. D., & Veldkamp, E. (2013). Soil carbon stocks decrease following conversion of secondary forests to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations. PLoS ONE, 8(7), e69357.

Dechert, G., Veldkamp, E., & Anas, I. (2004). Is soil degradation unrelated to deforestation? Examining soil parameters of land use systems in upland Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Plant and Soil, 265(1–2), 197–209. (2020). -. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Jan. 2020].

FAO. (2012). Global forest land-use change 1990-2005. Rome, IT: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved from

Guarino, G., Carotenuto, C., di Cristofaro, F., Papa, S., Morrone, B., & Minale, M. (2016). Does the C/N ratio really affect the bio-methane yield? a three years investigation of buffalo manure digestion. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 49, 463–468.

Hairiah, K., Sulistyani, H., Suprayogo, D., Widianto, Purnomosidhi, P., Widodo, R. H., & Van Noordwijk, M. (2006). Litter layer residence time in forest and coffee agroforestry systems in Sumberjaya, West Lampung. Forest Ecology and Management, 224(1–2), 45–57.

Heriansyah, I., Bustomi, S., & Kanazawa, Y. (2008). Density effects and stand density management diagram for merkus pine in the humid tropics of Java, Indonesia. Journal of Forestry Research, 5(2), 91–113. Retrieved from Ika cs.pdf

Kimetu, J. M., Lehmann, J., Ngoze, S. O., Mugendi, D. N., Kinyangi, J. M., Riha, S., … Pell, A. N. (2008). Reversibility of soil productivity decline with organic matter of differing quality along a degradation gradient. Ecosystems, 11, 726.

Kurniawan, S., Corre, M. D., Matson, A. L., Schulte- Bisping, H., Utami, S. R., van Straaten, O., & Veldkamp, E. (2018a). Conversion of tropical forests to smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations impacts nutrient leaching losses and nutrient retention efficiency in highly weathered soils. Biogeosciences, 15, 5131–5154.

Kurniawan, S., Corre, M. D., Utami, S. R., & Veldkamp, E. (2018b). Soil biochemical properties and nutrient leaching from smallholder oil palm plantations, Sumatra-Indonesia. Agrivita Journal of Agricultural Science, 40(2), 257-266.

Matus, F., Rumpel, C., Neculman, R., Panichini, M., & Mora, M. L. (2014). Soil carbon storage and stabilisation in andic soils: A review. CATENA, 120, 102–110.

Natalia, D., Arisoesilaningsih, E., & Hairiah, K. (2017). Are high carbon stocks in agroforests and forest associated with high plant species diversity? AGRIVITA Journal of Agricultural Science, 39(1), 74–82.

Ngoze, S., Riha, S., Lehmann, J., Verchot, L., Kinyangi, J., Mbugua, D., & Pell, A. (2008). Nutrient constraints to tropical agroecosystem productivity in long-term degrading soils. Global Change Biology, 14(12), 2810–2822.

Plante, A. F., Conant, R. T., Stewart, C. E., Paustian, K., & Six, J. (2006). Impact of soil texture on the distribution of soil organic matter in physical and chemical fractions. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70(1), 287–296.

Pransiska, Y., Triadiati, T., Tjitrosoedirjo, S., Hertel, D., & Kotowska, M. M. (2016). Forest conversion impacts on the fine and coarse root system, and soil organic matter in tropical lowlands of Sumatera (Indonesia). Forest Ecology and Management, 379, 288–298.

Ravindran, B., & Mnkeni, P. N. S. (2017). Identification and fate of antibiotic residue degradation during composting and vermicomposting of chicken manure. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 14(2), 263–270.

Saha, S. K., Nair, P. K. R., Nair, V. D., & Kumar, B. M. (2010). Carbon storage in relation to soil sizefractions under tropical tree-based land-use systems. Plant and Soil, 328(1–2), 433–446.

Silver, W. L., Neff, J., McGroddy, M., Veldkamp, E., Keller, M., & Cosme, R. (2000). Effects of soil texture on belowground carbon and nutrient storage in a lowland Amazonian forest ecosystem. Ecosystems, 3(2), 193–209.

Sollins, P., Homann, P., & Caldwell, B. A. (1996). Stabilization and destabilization of soil organic matter: mechanisms and controls. Geoderma, 74(1–2), 65–105.

Syswerda, S. P., Corbin, A. T., Mokma, D. L., Kravchenko, A. N., & Robertson, G. P. (2011). Agricultural management and soil carbon storage in surface vs. deep layers. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 75(1), 92–101.

Valle, S. R., Dörner, J., Zúñiga, F., & Dec, D. (2018). Seasonal dynamics of the physical quality of volcanic ash soils under different land uses in southern Chile. Soil and Tillage Research, 182, 25–34.

van Straaten, O., Corre, M. D., Wolf, K., Tchienkoua, M., Cuellar, E., Matthews, R. B., & Veldkamp, E. (2015). Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(32), 9956–9960.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.