Effect of Poultry Manure and Ethephon on Growth, Yield, and Quality of Cayenne Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) ‘Ratuni UNPAD’

Kusumiyati Kusumiyati, Rahmatillah Ramadhani, Yusuf Eka Maulana, Jajang Sauman Hamdani


The production of 'Ratuni UNPAD' cayenne pepper can be increased using organic chicken manure. However, the application of ethephon is needed during fertilization due to the significantly slow flower initiation. Therefore, this study aims to determine the interaction between chicken manure and ethephon on the growth, yield, and quality of the 'Ratuni UNPAD' cayenne pepper. Planting is carried out 829 meters above sea level (masl), and a factorial randomized block experimental design comprises 2 factors with 3 replications. The first factor is the dose of chicken manure (10, 20, 30, and 40 t/ha), while the second is the ethephon concentration (0, 500, 1000, and 1500 ppm). The results showed no interaction between poultry manure and ethephon on the growth, yield, and quality of the 'Ratuni UNPAD' cayenne pepper. According to the doses of chicken manure, 40 t/ha significantly affects the flower initiation, fruit number, weight, length, and diameter, as well as capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. The 30 t/ha shows the highest value for the number of leaves and productive branches, while 20 tons dose/ha influences flavonoids, phenolics, and total carotenoids. The ethephon concentration of 1500 ppm significantly affects the flower initiation, fruit length, diameter, capsaicin, and dihydrocapsaicin.


Bioactive compounds; Horticulture; Physicochemical; Plant growth regulator; Plant nutrition

Full Text:



Amjad, M., Akhtar, J., Anwar-Ul-Haq, M., Imran, S., & Jacobsen, S. E. (2014). Soil and foliar application of potassium enhances fruit yield and quality of tomato under salinity. Turkish Journal of Biology, 38(2), 208–218. DOI

Bal, E., & Kok, D. (2007). The effects of glycerin added ethephon treatments on fruit characteristics of Actinidia deliciosa Cv. Hayward. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 13, 291–300. PDF

Ban, T., Kugishima, M., Ogata, T., Shiozaki, S., Horiuchi, S., & Ueda, H. (2007). Effect of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) on the fruit ripening characters of rabbiteye blueberry. Scientia Horticulturae, 112(3), 278–281. DOI

Barbero, G. F., Palma, M., & Barroso, C. G. (2006). Determination of capsaicinoids in peppers by microwave-assisted extraction–high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Analytica Chimica Acta, 578(2), 227–233. DOI

Chenard, C. H., Kopsell, D. A., & Kopsell, D. E. (2005). Nitrogen concentration affects nutrient and carotenoid accumulation in parsley. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 28(2), 285–297. DOI

Cochrane, T. T., & Cochrane, T. A. (2009). The vital role of potassium in the osmotic mechanism of stomata aperture modulation and its link with potassium deficiency. Plant Signaling & Behavior, 4(3), 240–243. DOI

Dani, U., Budiarti, A. N. S., & Wijaya, A. A. (2021). Application of chicken manure dosage and plant growth promoting rhizobacetria on the growth and yield of shallot plants (Allium ascalonicum L.). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 748(1), 012044. DOI

Dumas, Y., Dadomo, M., Di Lucca, G., & Grolier, P. (2003). Effects of environmental factors and agricultural techniques on antioxidant content of tomatoes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 83(5), 369–382. DOI

Emmanuel-Ikpeme, C., Henry, P., & Okiri, A. (2014). Comparative evaluation of the nutritional, phytochemical and microbiological quality of three pepper varieties. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2(3), 74-80. DOI

Enujeke, E. C. (2013). Effects of variety and spacing on yield indices of open-pollinated maize in Asaba area of Delta State. Sustainable Agriculture Research, 2(4), 1-11. DOI

Fanasca, S., Colla, G., Rouphael, Y., Saccardo, F., Maiani, G., Venneria, E., & Azzini, E. (2006). Evolution of nutritional value of two tomato genotypes grown in soilless culture as affected by macrocation proportions. HortScience, 41(7), 1584–1588. DOI

Ghourab, M. H. H., Wassel, O. M. M., & Raya, N. A. A. (2000). Response of cotton plants to foliar application of (Pottasin-P) TM under two levels of nitrogen fertilizer. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 78, 781–793. DOI

González-Zamora, A., Sierra-Campos, E., Pérez-Morales, R., Vázquez-Vázquez, C., Gallegos-Robles, M. A., López-Martínez, J. D., & García-Hernández, J. L. (2015). Measurement of capsaicinoids in chiltepin hot pepper: A comparison study between spectrophotometric method and high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Journal of Chemistry, 1–10. DOI

Gurnani, N., Gupta, M., Mehta, D., & Mehta, B. K. (2016). Chemical composition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of crude extracts from red chilli seeds (Capsicum frutescens L.). Journal of Taibah University for Science, 10(4), 462–470. DOI

Huang, X., Zheng, L., & Xie, R. (2021). Effect of pre-harvest application of ethephon on colouration and expression of ripening related genes in citrus fruit. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 96(4), 514–526. DOI

Iqbal, N., Khan, N. A., Ferrante, A., Trivellini, A., Francini, A., & Khan, M. I. R. (2017). Ethylene role in plant growth, development and senescence: interaction with other phytohormones. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8. DOI

Ismail, A. S., Stavroulakis, G., Gerasopoulos, D., & Metzidakis, J. (1999). Effect of ethephon on the quality of cv. “Koroneiki” olive oil. Acta Horticulturae, 474, 683–686. DOI

Jiaying, M., Tingting, C., Jie, L., Weimeng, F., Baohua, F., Guangyan, L., Hubo, L., Juncai, L., Zhihai, W., Longxing, T., & Guanfu, F. (2022). Functions of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in energy status and their influences on rice growth and development. Rice Science, 29(2), 166–178. DOI

Joaquim, W. M., Ono, E. O., & Salatino, M. L. (2008). Some secondary metabolites in leaves of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schldl.) Micheli in Brazil. The Open Agriculture Journal, 2(1), 75–79. DOI

Khan, N. A., Mir, M. R., Nazar, R., & Singh, S. (2008). The application of ethephon (an ethylene releaser) increases growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen accumulation in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) under high nitrogen levels. Plant Biology, 10(5), 534–538. DOI

Khorshidi, S., & Davarynejad, G. (2010). Influence of preharvest ethephon spray on fruit quality and chemical attributes of 'Cigany' sour cherry cultivar. Journal of Biological & Environmental Sciences, 4(12), 133–141. website

Kusumiyati, Hadiwijaya, Y., Putri, I. E., & Mubarok, S. (2019a). Water content prediction of “crystal” guava using visible-near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics approach. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 393(1), 1–5. DOI

Kusumiyati, Mubarok, S., Sutari, W., Farida, Hamdani, J. S., Hadiwijaya, Y., & Putri, I. E. (2019b). Non-destructive method for predicting sapodilla fruit quality using near infrared spectroscopy. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 334(1), 1–8. DOI

Li, G., Zhang, Z.-S., Gao, H.-Y., Liu, P., Dong, S.-T., Zhang, J.-W., & Zhao, B. (2012). Effects of nitrogen on photosynthetic characteristics of leaves from two different stay-green corn (Zea mays L.) varieties at the grain-filling stage. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 92(4), 671–680. DOI

Li, Q., Guo, W., Chen, B., Pan, F., Yang, H., Zhou, J., Wang, G., & Li, X. (2021). Transcriptional and hormonal responses in ethephon-induced promotion of femaleness in pumpkin. Frontiers in Plant Science, 12, 715487. DOI

Lim, Y. Y., & Murtijaya, J. (2007). Antioxidant properties of Phyllanthus amarus extracts as affected by different drying methods. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 40(9), 1664–1669. DOI

Liu, Z., Gao, J., Gao, F., Liu, P., Zhao, B., & Zhang, J. (2018). Photosynthetic characteristics and chloroplast ultrastructure of summer maize response to different nitrogen supplies. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9, 576. DOI

López, R., Portu, J., González-Arenzana, L., Garijo, P., Gutiérrez, A. R., & Santamaría, P. (2021). Ethephon foliar application: Impact on the phenolic and technological Tempranillo grapes maturity. Journal of Food Science, 86(3), 803–812. DOI

Maduwanthi, S. D. T., & Marapana, R. A. U. J. (2021). Total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion and dialysis of banana (Musa acuminata, AAB) as affected by induced ripening agents. Food Chemistry, 339, 1–6. DOI

Marzouk, H. A., & Kassem, H. A. (2011). Improving fruit quality, nutritional value and yield of Zaghloul dates by the application of organic and/or mineral fertilizers. Scientia Horticulturae, 127(3), 249–254. DOI

Moreno-Reséndez, A., Parcero-Solano, R., Reyes-Carrillo, J. L., Salas-Pérez, L., Moncayo-Luján, M. D. R., Ramírez-Aragón, M. G., & Rodríguez-Dimas, N. (2016). Organic manures improved the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and soluble solids in pepper. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 07(14), 1401–1413. DOI

Naz, T., Mazhar Iqbal, M., Tahir, M., Hassan, M. M., Rehmani, M. I. A., Zafar, M. I., Ghafoor, U., Qazi, M. A., El Sabagh, A., & Sakran, M. I. (2021). Foliar application of potassium mitigates salinity stress conditions in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) through reducing NaCl toxicity and enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Horticulturae, 7(12), 566. DOI

Ndubuaku, U. M., Ede, A. E., Baiyeri, K. P., & Ezeaku, P. I. (2014). Application of poultry manure and its effect on growth and performance of potted moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam) plants raised for urban dwellers’ use. American Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization Technology, 5(1), 33–39. DOI

Nguyen, P. M., & Niemeyer, E. D. (2008). Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(18), 8685–8691. DOI

Olatunji, T. L., & Afolayan, A. J. (2019). Comparative quantitative study on phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities of Capsicum annuum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. The Scientific World Journal, 2019, 1–13. DOI

Othman, Z. A. A., Ahmed, Y. B. H., Habila, M. A., & Ghafar, A. A. (2011). Determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in capsicum fruit samples using high performance liquid chromatography. Molecules, 16(10), 8919–8929. DOI

Pandey, P., Jha, R. K., & Kumar, S. A. (2019). Influence of ethephon on vegetative character, flowering behaviour and sex expression of cucumber in Pokhara Lekhnath, Kaski. North American Academic Research, 2(5), 1–13. website

Rahman, M. J., Inden, H., & Hossain, M. M. (2012). Capsaicin content in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under temperature stress. Acta Horticulturae, 936, 195–202. DOI

Reis, L., Forney, C. F., Jordan, M., Munro Pennell, K., Fillmore, S., Schemberger, M. O., & Ayub, R. A. (2020). Metabolic profile of strawberry fruit ripened on the plant following treatment with an ethylene elicitor or inhibitor. Frontiers in Plant Science, 11, 995. DOI

Ruiz, R. (2006). Effects of different potassium fertilizers on yield, fruit quality and nutritional status of ´Fairlane´ nectarine trees and on soil fertility. Acta Horticulturae, 721, 185–190. DOI

Suhandy, D., Yulia, M., & Kusumiyati. (2019). The authentication of peaberry and civet ground roasted robusta coffee using UV-visible spectroscopy and PLS-DA method with two different particle sizes. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 258, 012043. DOI

Sytar, O., Hemmerich, I., Zivcak, M., Rauh, C., & Brestic, M. (2018). Comparative analysis of bioactive phenolic compounds composition from 26 medicinal plants. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 25(4), 631–641. DOI

Taghipour, L., Rahemi, M., & Assar, P. (2011). Thinning with NAA, NAD, ethephon, urea and by hand to improve fruit quality of “Gerdi” apricot. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 23(4), 279–284. DOI

Thapa, B., Skalko-basnet, N., Takano, A., Masuda, K., & Basnet, P. (2009). High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of capsaicin content in 16 capsicum fruits from nepal. Journal of Medicinal Food, 12(4), 908–913. DOI

Thappa, M., Kumar, S., & Rafiq, R. (2011). Influence of plant growth regulators on morphological, floral and yield traits of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Agriculture and Natural Resources, 45(2), 177–188. website

Thepsilvisut, O., Chutimanukul, P., Sae-Tan, S., & Ehara, H. (2022). Effect of chicken manure and chemical fertilizer on the yield and qualities of white mugwort at dissimilar harvesting times. PLOS ONE, 17(4), e0266190. DOI

Wall, M. M., Walker, S., Wall, A. D., Hughs, E., & Phillips, R. (2003). Yield and quality of machine harvested red chile peppers. HortTechnology, 13(2), 296–302. DOI

Wei, S., Wang, X., Shi, D., Li, Y., Zhang, J., Liu, P., Zhao, B., & Dong, S. (2016). The mechanisms of low nitrogen induced weakened photosynthesis in summer maize (Zea mays L.) under field conditions. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 105, 118–128. DOI

Wisutiamonkul, A., Ampomah-Dwamena, C., Allan, A. C., & Ketsa, S. (2017). Carotenoid accumulation in durian (Durio zibethinus) fruit is affected by ethylene via modulation of carotenoid pathway gene expression. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 115, 308–319. DOI

Wisutiamonkul, A., Ketsa, S., & van Doorn, W. G. (2015). Endogenous ethylene regulates accumulation of α- and β-carotene in the pulp of harvested durian fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 110, 18–23. DOI

Xu, X., Du, X., Wang, F., Sha, J., Chen, Q., Tian, G., Zhu, Z., Ge, S., & Jiang, Y. (2020). Effects of potassium levels on plant growth, accumulation and distribution of carbon, and nitrate metabolism in apple dwarf rootstock seedlings. Frontiers in Plant Science, 11, 904. DOI

Yamasaki, S., Fujii, N., & Takahashi, H. (2003). Characterization of ethylene effects on sex determination in cucumber plants. Sexual Plant Reproduction, 16(3), 103–111. DOI

Yang, B., Luo, Y., Tan, Y., & Kan, J. (2021). Effects of ethephon on ethephon residue and quality properties of chili pepper during pre-harvest ripening. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 58(6), 2098–2108. DOI

Ye, T., Li, Y., Zhang, J., Hou, W., Zhou, W., Lu, J., Xing, Y., & Li, X. (2019). Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilization affects the flowering time of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Global Ecology and Conservation, 20, e00753. DOI

DOI: http://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v46i1.4034

Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.