The Effect of Papaya Leaf Extract (Carica papaya L.) on the Mortality Rate of Spodoptera litura Fabricius Larvae and the Level of Damage to Soybean Leaves in Malang, Indonesia: A Greenhouse Simulation

Sofia Ery Rahayu, Amin Setyo Leksono, Zulfaidah Penata Gama, Hagus Tarno


Spodoptera litura Fabricius pest control using botanical pesticide from papaya leaves extract (PLE) is an alternative to substitute chemical pesticides. The study aimed to determine the levels of PLE's activity and evaluate the effectiveness of PLE from different altitudes (low and middle lands) and cultivars (Thailand and Indonesian) against the attack of S. litura Fabricius larvae. An experimental study with a randomized block design (n=5) was conducted from December 2020 until April 2021. Each replication used 100 soybean plants and sprayed with 0% or 20% PLE of Indonesian purple cultivar low land (UR-20%), Indonesian purple cultivar middle land (US-20%), Thailand cultivar low land (TR-20%), and Thailand cultivar middle land (TS-20%), respectively and observed at 72 hours after treatment. The results demonstrate that the middle lands contained active compounds slightly higher than the lowlands. The damaged soybean leaves and intensity of soybean leaf damage are highest in control (77% and 63%) and significantly different from the treatment group, 53-60% and 29-41%, respectively. The mortality of S. litura Fabricius larvae in the control group was 11%, and in the treatment group, 47-63%. PLE from different altitudes and cultivars reduce the intensity of soybean leaf damage by S. litura Fabricius larvae.


Leaf damage intensity, Papaya leaf extract, S. litura larvae, Soybean plant

Full Text:



Adesina, J. M., Ileke, K. D., Yallappa, R., & Ofuya, T. I. (2016). Insecticidal evaluation of Bridelia micrantha and Dalbergia lactea aqueous extracts for the control of Podagrica uniforma (Jacoby) and Nisotra dilecta (Jacoby) (Coleoptera: Chysomelidae) infestation on okra. AGRIVITA Journal of Agricultural Science, 38(3), 269-274. DOI

Adhikari, P., Joshi, K., Singh, M., & Pandey, A. (2020). Influence of altitude on secondary metabolites, antioxidants, and antimicrobial activities of Himalayan yew (Taxus wallichiana). Plant Biosystems - An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology, 156(1), 187-195. DOI

Aihetasham, A., Rasib, K. Z., Hasan, S. R., & Bodlah, I. (2017). Effect of Carica papaya, Helianthus annus and Bougainvillea glabra aqueous extracts against termite Heterotermes indicola (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Punjab University Journal of Zoology, 32(1), 051-056. Retrieved from website

Bayu, M. S. Y. I, Krisnawati, A., & Adie, M. M. (2018). Response on soybean genotypes against armyworm, Spodoptera litura based on no choice test. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 102, 012033. DOI

Cao, Y., Reitz, S. R., Germinara, G. S., Wang, C., Wang, L., Yang, S., … Li, C. (2022). Host preference of Thrips hawaiiensis for different ornamental plants. Journal of Pest Science, 95, 761–770. DOI

da S. Glier, C. A., Duarte Júnior, J. B., Fachin, G. M., da Costa, A. C. T., Guimarães, V. F., & Mrozinski, C. R. (2015). Defoliation percentage in two soybean cultivars at different growth stages. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, 19(6), 567–573. DOI

da Silva, J. G., Magarelli, G., Pedroza, T. M., Cavalcante, R. S., de Souza, J. R., da Silva, J. P., … de Castro, C. S. P. (2021). Determination of total isoflavones and rutin in seeds, roots, and leaves of Brazilian soybean cultivars by using voltammetric methods. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 3, 100113. DOI

de Freitas Bueno, R. C. O., de Freitas Bueno, A., Moscardi, F., Parra, J. R. P., & Hoffmann-Campo, C. B. (2011). Lepidopteran larva consumption of soybean foliage: basis for developing multiple-species economic thresholds for pest management decisions. Pest Management Science, 67(2), 170-174. DOI

Fattah, A., Ilyas, A., & Rauf, A. W. (2020). The intensity of attacks and the use of insecticides by farmers in controlling soybeans pests for various agroecosystems in South Sulawesi. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 484, 012104. DOI

Fattah, A., Sjam, S., Daud, I. D., & Dewi, V. S. (2018). The relationship of the population density of larvae Spodoptera litura with the leaf damage and decrease of seed yield for soybean, Indonesia. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A, 8, 212-219. DOI

Gupt, S. K., Chand, R., Mishra, V. K., Ahirwar, R. N., Bhatta, M., & Joshi, A. K. (2021). Spot blotch disease of wheat as influenced by foliar trichome and stomata density. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 6, 100227. DOI

Hernández-Lambraño, R., Caballero-Gallardo, K., & Olivero-Varbel, J. (2014). Toxicity and antifeedant activity of essential oils from three aromatic plants grown in Colombia against Euprosterna elaeasa and Acharia fusca (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 4(9), 695-700. DOI

Ikeyi, A. P., Ogbonna, A. O., & Eze, F. U. (2013). Phytochemical analysis of paw-paw (Carica papaya) leaves. International Journal of Life Sciences Biotechnology and Pharma Research, 2(3), 347-351. Retrieved from PDF

Ilhamiyah, Salamiah, Samharinto, & Halim, H. (2019). Agroecosystem management on green mustard plants in wetlands during dry season. Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management, 7(1), 41-49. DOI

Indiati, S. W. (2014). The use of sugar apple and neem extract to control leaf eating pest on soybean. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences, 2(2), 208-214.

Isah, T. (2019). Stress and defense responses in plant secondary metabolites production. Biological Research, 52, 39. DOI

Krisnawati, A., & Adie, M. M. (2019). The resistance of soybean genotypes to the pod feeding insects. Planta Tropika, 7(1), 48-57. DOI

Kuppusamy, E., Dhamodharan, K. I., & Jayakumar, S. (2016). Role of plants and plant-based products towards the control of insect pests and vectors: A novel review. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 4(11), 902-917. DOI

Kushram, T., Yadu, Y. K., Sahu, M. K., Kulmitra, A. K., & Kumar, R. (2017). Bio efficacy of botanical insecticides against defoliators pest on soybean. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6(3), 2196-2204. DOI

Lingaturai, S., Vendan, S. E., Paulraj, M. G., & Ignacimuthu, S. (2011). Antifeedant and larvicidal activities of Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. (Euphorbiaceae) against Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) larvae. Journal of King Saud University – Science, 23(1), 11–16. DOI

Lopes, C. L., Pereira, E., Sokovic, M., Carvalho, A. M., Barata, A. M., Lopes, V., … Ferreira, I. C. F. R. (2018). Phenolic composition and bioactivity of Lavandula pedunculata (Mill.) Cav. samples from different geographical origin. Molecules, 23(5), 1037. DOI

Marques, T. R., Caetano, A. A., Alves, D. S., de O. Ramos, V., Simão, A. A., Carvalho, G. A., & Corrêa, A. D. (2015). Malpighia emarginata DC. bagasse acetone extract: Phenolic compounds and their effect on Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 76(1), 55-61. DOI

Matsuura, H. N., & Fett-Neto, A. G. (2015). Plant alkaloids: Main features, toxicity, and mechanisms of action. In Gopalakrishnakone, P., Carlini, C., Ligabue-Braun, R. (Eds.), Plant Toxins (pp. 1-15). Dordrecht: Springer. DOI

Maulina, D., Sumitro, S. B., Amin, M., & Lestari, S. R. (2018). Identification of bioactive compound from Mirabilis jalapa L. (Caryophyllales: Nyctaginaceae) extracts as biopesticides and their activity against the immune response of Spodoptera litura F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Jurnal of Biopesticides, 11(2), 89-97.

Meena, A. K., Lal, J., & Swaminathan, R. (2018). Efficacy of biopesticides against whiteflies and jassids of soybean. Journal of Biopesticides, 11(1), 01-06.

Mierziak, J., Kostyn, K., & Kulma, A. (2014). Flavonoids as important molecules of plant interactions with the environment. Molecules, 19(10), 16240-16265. DOI

Ningrum, I. H., Irianto, H., & Riptanti, E. W. (2018). Analysis of soybean production and import trends and its import factors in Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 142, 012059. DOI

Ortega, M.A., All, J.N., Boerma, H.R., & Parrot, W.A. 2016. Pyramids of QTLs enhance host–plant resistance and Bt‑mediated resistance to leaf‑chewing insects in soybean. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 129, 703-715. DOI

Padjung, R., Syam'un, E., & Kasim, N. (2021). Photosyntetics parameters of two Indonesian soybean top varieties. AGRIVITA Journal of Agricultural and Science, 43(2), 422-429. DOI

Qin, P., Wang, T., & Luo, Y. (2022). A review on plant-based proteins from soybean: Health benefits and soy product development. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. 7, 100265. DOI

Rahayu, S. E., Leksono, A. S., Gama, Z. P., & Tarno, H. (2020). The active compounds composition and antifeedant activity of leaf extract of two cultivar Carica papaya L. on Spodoptera litura F. larvae. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2231, 040085. DOI

Rashwan, R. S., & Hammad, D. M. (2020). Toxic effect of Spirulina platensis and Sargassum vulgar as natural pesticides on survival and biological characteristics of cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. Scientific Afican, 8, e00323. DOI

Saran, P. L., & Choudhary, R. (2013). Drug bioavailability and traditional medicaments of commercially available papaya: A review. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(25), 3216-3223. DOI

Sotelo-Cardona, P., Chuang, W.-P., Lin, M.-Y., Chiang, M.-Y., & Ramasamy, S. (2021). Oviposition preference not necessarily predicts offspring performance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on vegetable crops. Scientific Reports, 11, 15885. DOI

Su, Q., Zhou, Z., Zhang, J., Shi, C., Zhang, G., Jin, Z., Wang, W. Li, C. (2018). Effect of plant secondary metabolites on common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Entomological Research, 48(1), 18-26. DOI

Sudi, S., Chin, Y.-Z., Wasli, N. S., Fong, S.-Y., Shimmi, S. C., How, S.-E., & Sunggip, C. (2022). Carpaine promotes proliferation and repair of H9c2 cardiomyocytes after oxidative insults. Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 15(2), 230. DOI

Sulistyo, A., & Inayati, A. (2016). Mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance of fourteen soybean genotypes in response to whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci). Biodiversitas, 17(2), 447-453. DOI

Tatun, N., Vajarasathira, B., Tungjitwitayakul, J., & Sakurai, S. (2014). Inhibitory effects of plant extracts on growth, development and α-amylase activity in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). European Journal of Entomology, 111(2), 181–188. DOI

Yang, L., Wen, K.-S., Ruan, X., Zhao, Y.-X., Wei, F., & Wang, X. (2018). Response of plant secondary metabolites to environmental factors. Molecules, 23(4), 762. DOI

Zou, C. S., Wang, Y. J., Zou, H., Ding, N., Geng, N. N., Cao, C. W., & Zhang, G. C. (2019). Sanguinarine in Chelidonium majus induced antifeeding and larval lethality by suppressing food intake and digestive enzymes in Lymantria dispar. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 153, 9-16. DOI


Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.