Rama Riana Sitinjak, Dingse Pandiangan


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of  plant growth regulator triacontanol to the growth of cacao seedings (Theobroma cacao L.). A completely randomized design was applied using non-factorial pattern on the treatment triacontanol growing regulator substance to level: 0.0 ml/L, 0.1 ml/L, 0.5 ml/L, 1.0 ml/L and 2.0 ml/L replicated 5 times. The result shows that the given of tria-contanol significantly affected the growth of cacao seedings at the age of 14 weeks. The best tria-contanol concentration was 1.0 ml/L, which was effectively able to increase the growth of cacao seedlings; high seedlings, number of leaves, lenght of leaves, and diameter of stems respectively reached 26.21%; 3.70%; 42.28%; and 10.42% higher than the control. Plant growth regulator triacontanol was efective to increase the growth of cacao seedlings.


Keywords: triacontanol, seedling, Theobroma cacao L.

Full Text:



Aziz, R., M. Shahbaz and M. Ashraf. 2013. Influence of foliar application of triacon-tanol on growth attributes, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in sun-flower (Helianthus annuus L.) under saline stress. Pak. J. Bot., 45(6): 1913-1918.

Bhaskaran, S. and R.H. Smith. 1990. Regenera-tion in cereal tissue culture. A Review. Crop Sci. 30: 1328-1336.

Borowska, M. and J. Prusinski. 2011. Effect of triacontanol on the Productivity of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) Plants. Journal of Central European Agriculture. 12(4): 680-690.

Borowski, E. and Z.K. Blamowski. 2009. The effects of triacontanol ‘TRIA’ and Asahi SL on the development and metabolic activity of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants treated with chilling. Folia Horticulturae Ann. 21(1): 39-48.

Cavusoglu, K., S. Kilic. and K. Kabar. 2008. Effects of some plant growth regulators on stem anatomy of radish seedlings grown under saline (NaCl) conditions. Plant Soil Environ. 54. (10): 428–433).

Chapman, E.J. and M. Estelle. 2009. Cytokinin and auxin intersection in root meristems. Genome Biology. 10: 210.

Chaudhary, B.R., M.D. Sharma, S.M. Shakya and D.M. Gautam. 2006. Effect of plant growth regulators on growth, yield and quality of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) at Rampur, Chitwan. J. Inst. Agric. Anim. Sci. 27:65-68.

Chaudhury, A. and R. Qu. 2000. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of turf-type Bermuda grass: Effect of 6-benzyladenine in callus induction medium. Plant Cell, Tissue and. Organ Cult. 60: 113-120.

Chen, X., Yuan H., Chen R., Zhu L., Du B., Weng Q. and He G. 2002. Isolation and characterization of triacontanol-regulated genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.): Possible role of triacontanol as a plant growth stimulator. Plant Cell Physiol. 43 (8): 69-76.

Chugh, A. and P. Khurana. 2002. Gene expression during somatic embryo-genesis recent advances. Curr. Sci. 83 (6): 715-730.

Davies, P.J. 1995. The plant hormones: Their nature, occurrence, and functions. In P.J. Davies (ed.) Plant hormones: Physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, Boston, London.

Fosket, D.E. 1994. Plant growth and develop-ment: A molecular approach. Academic Press, inc., California.

Gana, A.S. 2010. The role of synthetic growth hormones in crop multiplication and improvement. African Journal of Bio-technology. 10 (51): 10330-10334

Giridhar, P., E.P. Indu, G.A. Ravishankar and A. Candrasekar. 2004. Influence of tria-contanol on somatic embryogenesis in Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora P. Ex FR. In vitro Cell Dev. Biol. –Plant. 40:200-203.

Gomez, K.A. dan Gomez, A.A. 1995. Statistical procedures in agricultural research (in Indonesian). 2nd Edition. Universitas Indonesia (UI-Press), Jakarta.

Hagen, G.L. and A. Marcus. 1975. Cytokinin effects on growth of quiescent tobacco pith cells1. Plant Physiol. 55: 90 – 93.

Hanafiah, K.A. 1991. Experimental designs: Theory and application (in Indonesian). 3rd Edition, PT Raja Grafindo Persada, Jakarta.

Hangarter R., and S.K. Ries. 1978. Effect of tria-contanol on plant cell cultures in vitro. Plant Physiol. 61: 855-857

He, Ya-Wen and Chiang-Shieng Loh. 2002. Induction of early bolting in Arabinopsis thaliana by triacontanol, cerium, and lanthanum is correlated with increased endogenous concentration of isopen-tenyl adenosine (iPAdos). Journal of Experimental Botany. 53 (368): 505 – 512.

Hinerman, D.I. and S.L. Kunkel. 1982. Tria-contanol as a growth stimulant - A report of two experiments. Journal American Rhododendron Society. 36 (3):

Hoagland. R.E. 1980. Effects of triacontanol on seed germination and early growth. Bot. Gaz. 141 (1): 53-55.

Indonesian Coffee and Cacao Research Institute. 2010. Smart Book of Cacao Cultivation (in Indonesian). Agro Media Pustaka, Jakarta Selatan.

Jaybhay, S., P. Chate and A. Ade. 2010. Isolation and identification of crude tria-contanol from rice bran wax. Journal of Experimental sciences. 1 (2): 26.

Jimenez, V.M. 2001. Regulation of in vitro somatic embryogenesis with emphasis on the role of endogenous hormones. R. Bras. Fisiol. Veg. 13 (2): 196-223.

Khandaker, M.M., G. Faruq, M.M. Rahman, M.Sofian-Azirun and A. N. Boyce. 2013. The influence of 1-triacontanol on the growth, flowering, and quality of potted bougainvillea plants (Bougainvillea glabra var. “Elizabeth Angus”) under natural conditions. The Scientific World Journal. 2013: 1-13.

Krishnan, R.R., and B.D.R. Kumari. 2008. Effect of N-triacontanol on the growth of salt stressed soybean plants. Journal of Bioscience, 19(2): 53 – 62.

Kusumo, S. 1990. Substance for plant growth (in Indonesian). Jakarta, CV. Yasaguna.

Malabadi, R.B., and K. Nataraja. 2007. Influence of triacontanol on somatic embryogene-sis of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Baltic Forestry, 13(1): 39 – 44.

Mizukami, Y. and R. L. Fischer. 2000. Plant organ size control: Aintegumenta regulates growth and cell numbers during organo-genesis. PNAS, 97(2): 942 – 947.

Naeem, M., M. Masroor, A. Khan and Moinuddin. 2012. Review article Tria-contanol: A potent plant growth regulator in agriculture. Journal of Plant Inter-actions. 7(2): 129-142.

Pal, D., S. Mallick, R.K. Ghosh, P. Pal, L. Tzudir and K. Barui. 2009. Efficacy of Tria-contanol on the growth and yield of rice crop in inceptisol of West Bengal. Journal of Crop and Weed, 5(2): 128-130.

Perveen, S., M. Shahbaz and M. Ashraf. 2014. Triacontanol-induced changes in growth, yield, leaf water relations, oxidative defense system, minerals, and some key osmoprotectants in Triticum aestivum under saline conditions. Turk J Bot. 38: 896-913.

Perveen, S., M.Shahbaz. and M.Ashraf. 2010. Regulation in gas exchange and quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) in Salt-stressed and non-stressed wheat plants raised from seed treated with triacontanol. Pak. J. Bot., 42(5): 3073 – 3081.

Ries, S. 1991. Triacontanol and Its Second Messenger 9-β-L (+) –Adenosine as Plant Growth Substances. Plant Physiol. 95: 986-989.

Ruzicka, K., K. Ljung, S. Vanneste, R. Podhorska´, T. Beeckman, J. Friml and E. Benkova´. 2007. Ethylene regulates root growth through effects on auxin biosynthesis and transport-dependent auxin distri-bution. Plant Cell. 19: 2197–2212.

Salisbury, F.B. dan C.W. Ross. 1995. Plant Physiology (in Indonesian). Edisi ke-4. Penerbit ITB, Bandung.

Samui, R.C. and A. Roy. 2007. Effect of growth regulators on growth, yield and natural enemies of potato. Journal of Crop and Weed 3(1) : 35-36.

Shahbaza, M., N. Noreena and S. Perveen. 2013. Triacontanol modulates photosyn-thesis and osmoprotectants in canola (Brassica napus L.) under saline stress. Journal of Plant Interactions, 8 (4): 350_359.

Sharma, M.D. 2006. Effect of plant growth regulators on growth and yield of brinjal at Khajura, Banke. J. Inst. Agric. Anim. Sci. 27:153-156.

Su, Y., Y. Liu and X. Zhang. 2011. Review article: Auxin–cytokinin interaction regulates meristem development. Molecular Plant. 1 – 10.

Sutedja, I N. 1993. Growth of vanilla short stem cuttings promoted by rootone F and Dharmasri 5 EC (in Indonesian). Uda-yana University Scientific Journal. 20 (38): 138 – 145.

Tantos, A., A. Meszaros, T. Farkas and J. Szalai. 2001. Triacontanol-supported Micro-propagation of Woody Plants. Plant Cell Reports. 20: 16 – 21.

Tantos, A., A. Meszaros., J. Kissimon., G. Horvath and T. Farkas. 1999. The effect of triacontanol on micropropagation of balm, Melissa officinalis L. Plant Cell Reports, 19: 88 – 91.

Verma, A., C.P. Malik, V.K. Gupta and B.K. Bajaj. 2011. Effects of in vitro Traicontanol on growth, antioxidant enzymes, and photosynthetic charac-teristics in Arachis hypogaea L. Braz. J. Plant Physiol. 23 (4): 271-277.

Verma, A., C.P. Malik., Y.K. Sinsinwar and V.K. Gupta. 2009. Yield parameters respon-ses in a spreading (cv.M-13) and semi-spreading (cv.Girnar-2) types of ground-nut to six growth regulators. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 6 (1): 88-91.

Yang T., P.J. Davies and J.B.Reid. 1996. Genetic dissection of the relative roles of auxin and gibberellin in the regulation of stem elongation in lntact light-crown peas’. Plant Physiol. 110: 1029 – 1034.


Copyright (c)