Intercropping Farming System and Farmers Income

Muhammad Arsyad, Yusmiati Sabang, Nurariaty Agus, Sitti Bulkis, Yoshio Kawamura

Abstract


Agriculture cultivation systems and farmer’s income are the crucial issues in many agriculture-based developing countries. Our previous study proved that the polyculture system positively affects land productivity and land-use efficiency. This research investigated the relationship between intercropping farming systems and farmer’s income. We hypothesized that the intercropping farming system increases farmer’s income compared to monoculture. The farming income analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel and STATA software. The results showed that the farmer’s income derived from the intercropping farming system differs from monoculture. Based on the T-test, the intercropping farming system provided a higher income. Intercropping farming systems that have higher plant diversity, contributed to higher farmer income from different plant yields. Farmers that applied the intercropping system would harvest of 2-3 different plants from one cultivated land at the same time with regular planting distance. These indicated that the intercropping farming system reduces the risk of loss due to price fluctuations of products and the higher input costs during the production process.


Keywords


Farmer’s income; Farming system; Intercropping; Monoculture

Full Text:

PDF

References


Altieri, M., & Nicholls, C. (2004). Biodiversity and pest management in agroecosystems (2nd ed.). CRC Press. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.id/books/about/Biodiversity_and_Pest_Management_in_Agro.html?id=gQI0PCnnbI8C&redir_esc=y

Anderzén, J., Guzmán Luna, A., Luna-González, D. V., Merrill, S. C., Caswell, M., Méndez, V. E., … Mier y Terán Giménez Cacho, M. (2020). Effects of on-farm diversification strategies on smallholder coffee farmer food security and income sufficiency in Chiapas, Mexico. Journal of Rural Studies, 77, 33–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2020.04.001

Bhattacharyya, D., R.A. Kan & M. Mitra (2020). A nonparametric test for comparison of mean fast lives. Statistics and Probability Letters. 161 (June), 108722. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spl.2020.108722

Bracken, M. E. S. (2019). Monocultures versus polycultures. In Encyclopedia of Ecology (2nd ed., pp. 483–486). Oxford, UK: Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-409548-9.11169-8

Breen, E., F.J. Costa & W.S. Hendon (1986). Annexation: An Economic Analysis:Whether a small village or town should annex adjacent land is a Cost?Revenue Problem. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 45, 159-171. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1536-7150.1986.tb01916.x

Chown, S.L., J.G. Sarensen & J.S. Terblanche (2011). Water loss in Insects: An environmental change perspective. Journal of Insects Physiology, 57, 1070-1084. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2011.05.004

Coromaldi, M., Pallante, G., & Savastano, S. (2015). Adoption of modern varieties, farmers’ welfare and crop biodiversity: Evidence from Uganda. Ecological Economics, 119, 346–358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2015.09.004

Culliney, T. W., & Pimentel, D. (1986). Ecological effects of organic agricultural practices on insect populations. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 15(4), 253–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-8809(86)90124-6

Di Bitetti, M. S. (2000). The distribution of grooming among female primates: Testing hypotheses with the shannon-wiener diversity index. Behaviour, 137(11), 1517–1540. https://doi.org/10.1163/156853900502709

Doran, J. W., & Zeiss, M. R. (2000). Soil health and sustainability: Managing the biotic component of soil quality. Applied Soil Ecology, 15(1), 3–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0929-1393(00)00067-6

Herzon, I., & Mikk, M. (2007). Farmers’ perceptions of biodiversity and their willingness to enhance it through agri-environment schemes: A comparative study from Estonia and Finland. Journal for Nature Conservation, 15(1), 10–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2006.08.001

Jezeer, R. E., Verweij, P. A., Santos, M. J., & Boot, R. G. A. (2017). Shaded coffee and cocoa – double dividend for biodiversity and small-scale farmers. Ecological Economics, 140, 136–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.04.019

Jiménez Aguilar, S. M., Rodríguez, D. L., Muñoz Estrada, V. F., Cázarez Salazar, S. G., Velarde Félix, J. S., & Méndez Martínez, R. S. (2019). Great diversity of oncogenic human papillomaviruses is revealed in an outbreak of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, In Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2019.12.041

Jumiyati, S., Arsyad, M., Rajindra, Pulubuhu, D. A. T., & Hadid, A. (2018). Cocoa based agroforestry: An economic perspective in resource scarcity conflict era. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 157, 012009. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/157/1/012009

Kelemen, E., Nguyen, G., Gomiero, T., Kovács, E., Choisis, J. P., Choisis, N., … Balázs, K. (2013). Farmers’ perceptions of biodiversity: Lessons from a discourse-based deliberative valuation study. Land Use Policy, 35, 318–328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2013.06.005

Magurran, A. E. (1988). Ecological diversity and its measurement. Dordrecht: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-7358-0

Matson, P. A., Parton, W. J., Power, A. G., & Swift, M. J. (1997). Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties. Science, 277(5325), 504–509. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.277.5325.504

Morgan-Davies, C., Wilson, R., & Waterhouse, T. (2017). Impacts of farmers’ management styles on income and labour under alternative extensive land use scenarios. Agricultural Systems, 155, 168–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2017.04.011

Normansyah, D., Rochaeni, S., & Humaerah, A. D. (2014). Analisis pendapatan usahatani sayuran di kelompok tani jaya, desa Ciaruteun Ilir, kecamatan Cibungbulang, kabupaten Bogor. Agribusiness Journal, 8(1), 29–44. https://doi.org/10.15408/aj.v8i1.5127

Park, M., Shin, S. K., Do, Y. H., Yarish, C., & Kim, J. K. (2018). Application of open water integrated multitrophic aquaculture to intensive monoculture: A review of the current status and challenges in Korea. Aquaculture, 497, 174–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.07.051

Pereira, P. F., Lourenço, R., Lopes, C., Oliveira, A., Ribeiro-Silva, J., Rabaça, J. E., … Marques, J. T. (2019). The influence of management and environmental factors on insect attack on cork oak canopy. Forest Ecology and Management, 453, 117582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2019.117582

Putri, M. P. (2011). Analisis komparatif usahatani tumpangsari jagung dan kacang tanah dengan monokultur jagung di Kabupaten Wonogiri [Skripsi]. Surakarta: Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/12350131.pdf

Reimer, A., Wiebe, K., Rao, J., Yao, B., Gui, Y., Jian, F., … Hu, C. M. (2018). A compact microwave device for monitoring insect activity in grain samples. Biosystems Engineering, 175, 27–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2018.08.010

Rizali, A., Buchori, D., Susilawati, Pudjianto, & Clough, Y. (2018). Does landscape complexity and seminatural habitat structure affect diversity of flowervisiting insects in cucumber fields? AGRIVITA Journal of Agricultural Science, 40(1), 107–117. https://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v40i0.1722

Sabang, Y., Agus, N., Bulkis, S., & Arsyad, M. (2019). Land equation value of secondary plant polyculture system in high land and low land farmers. International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology, 6(1), 95–99. https://doi.org/10.32628/ijsrst196115

Sardaro, R., Girone, S., Acciani, C., Bozzo, F., Petrontino, A., & Fucilli, V. (2016). Agro-biodiversity of Mediterranean crops: farmers’ preferences in support of a conservation programme for olive landraces. Biological Conservation, 201, 210–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.06.033

Spellerberg, I. F., & Fedor, P. J. (2003). A tribute to Claude-Shannon (1916-2001) and a plea for more rigorous use of species richness, species diversity and the “Shannon-Wiener” Index. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 12(3), 177–179. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1466-822X.2003.00015.x

Stefanescu, C., Herrando, S., & Páramo, F. (2004). Butterfly species richness in the north-west Mediterranean Basin: The role of natural and human-induced factors. Journal of Biogeography, 31(6), 905–915. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2004.01088.x

Syafiq, M., Nur Atiqah, A. R., Ghazali, A., Asmah, S., Yahya, M. S., Aziz, N., … Azhar, B. (2016). Responses of tropical fruit bats to monoculture and polyculture farming in oil palm smallholdings. Acta Oecologica, 74, 11–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2016.06.005

van Rensburg, T. M., & Mulugeta, E. (2016). Profit efficiency and habitat biodiversity: The case of upland livestock farmers in Ireland. Land Use Policy, 54, 200–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.01.015




DOI: http://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v42i2.2724

Copyright (c) 2020 The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.