Effect of Fertilization with N-Inhibitors on Root and Crop Development of Flaxseed Crop (Linum usitatissimum L.)

Ioanna P. Kakabouki, Stella Karydogianni, Charikleia Zisi, Antigolena Folina


Flax is a crop whose products can be used in a variety of ways such as industrial use, human consumption, and fiber production. Nitrogen appears to have a positive effect on flaxseed growth and production. In an experiment conducted in two consecutive years in Greece, it has been studied how three combinations of urea fertilization affect flaxseed cultivation (cv. ‘Everest’). More specifically, the experimental treatments with urea fertilizers were represented as follows: only urea; urea with urease inhibitor; and urea with urease inhibitor and nitrates inhibitors. The value of root mass ranged from 0.780 to 1.182 mg/cm3 in the first year and from 0.872 to 1.267 mg/cm3 in the second year. The maximum value of plant height was 69.25 in urea with double inhibitors. Leaf Area Index (LAI) was double in fertilized plots compare to unfertilized. Oil content was significantly affected by year and noticed mostly 1% among treatments. Oil yield was affected by fertilizers and the maximum value was 513.96 kg/ha. A positive significant correlation coefficient was observed between oil yield and LAI (r=0.8699). A positive correlation was noticed between seed yield and NUE (r=0.6881). The most beneficial effects were mentioned under urea with UI and NI inhibitors.


Flaxseed; Inhibitor; Nitrogen Indicator; Root; Urea

Full Text:



Adesemoye, A. O., Torbert, H. A., & Kloepper, J. W. (2008). Enhanced plant nutrient use efficiency with PGPR and AMF in an integrated nutrient management system. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 54(10), 876–886. crossref

Artola, E., Cruchaga, S., Ariz, I., Moran, J. F., Garnica, M., Houdusse, F., … Aparicio-Tejo, P. M. (2011). Effect of N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide on urea metabolism and the assimilation of ammonium by Triticum aestivum L. Plant Growth Regulation, 63, 73–79. crossref

Azcón, R., Rodríguez, R., Amora-Lazcano, E., & Ambrosano, E. (2008). Uptake and metabolism of nitrate in mycorrhizal plants as affected by water availability and N concentration in soil. European Journal of Soil Science, 59(2), 131–138. crossref

Barraclough, P. B., Kuhlmann, H., & Weir, A. H. (1989). The effects of prolonged drought and nitrogen fertilizer on root and shoot growth and water uptake by winter wheat. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 163(5), 352–360. crossref

Bilalis, D. J., Karkanis, A., Papastylianou, P., Patsiali, S., Athanasopoulou, M., Barla, G., & Kakabouki, I. (2010). Response of organic linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) to the combination of tillage systems, (minimum, conventional and no-tillage) and fertilization practices: Seed and oil yield production. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 4(9), 700–705. Retrieved from pdf

Bilalis, D., Kakabouki, I., Karkanis, A., Travlos, I., Triantafyllidis, V., & Hela, D. (2012). Seed and saponin production of organic quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) for different tillage and fertilization. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 40(1), 42–46. crossref

Bilalis, Dimitrios J., & Karamanos, A. J. (2010). Organic maize growth and mycorrhizal root colonization response to tillage and organic fertilization. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 34(8), 836–849. crossref

Boswell, E. P., Koide, R. T., Shumway, D. L., & Addy, H. D. (1998). Winter wheat cover cropping, VA mycorrhizal fungi and maize growth and yield. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 67(1), 55–65. crossref

Bremner, J. M. (1960). Determination of nitrogen in soil by the Kjeldahl method. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 55(1), 11–33. crossref

Cantarella, H., Otto, R., Soares, J. R., & de Brito Silva, A. G. (2018). Agronomic efficiency of NBPT as a urease inhibitor: A review. Journal of Advanced Research, 13, 19–27. crossref

CEU. (2007). Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products and repealing Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91. Official Journal of the European Union. Luxembourg: The Council of the European Union. Retrieved from website

Constable, G. A., Rochester, I. J., & Daniells, I. G. (1992). Cotton yield and nitrogen requirement is modified by crop rotation and tillage method. Soil and Tillage Research, 23(1–2), 41–59. crossref

Cruchaga, S., Lasa, B., Jauregui, I., González-Murua, C., Aparicio-Tejo, P. M., & Ariz, I. (2013). Inhibition of endogenous urease activity by NBPT application reveals differential N metabolism responses to ammonium or nitrate nutrition in pea plants: A physiological study. Plant and Soil, 373, 813–827. crossref

Dubey, S., Bhargava, A., Fuentes, F., Shukla, S., & Srivastava, S. (2020). Effect of salinity stress on yield and quality parameters in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 48(2), 954–966. crossref

Easson, D. L., & Long, F. N. J. (1992). The effect of time of sowing, seed rate and nitrogen level on the fibre yield and quality of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 31(2), 163–172. Retrieved from website

El-Nagdy, G. A., Nassar, D. M. A., El-Kady, E. A., & El-Yamanee, G. S. A. (2010). Response of flax plant (Linum usitatissimum L.) to treatments with mineral and bio-fertilizers from nitrogen and phosphorus. Journal of American Science, 6(10), 207–217. Retrieved from pdf

Etesami, H., & Alikhani, H. A. (2016). Co-inoculation with endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria allows reduced application rates of N-fertilizer for rice plant. Rhizosphere, 2, 5–12. crossref

Farzaneh, M., Vierheilig, H., Lössll, A., & Kaull, H. P. (2011). Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhances nutrient uptake in chickpea. Plant, Soil and Environment, 57(10), 465–470. crossref

Freney, J. R., Chen, D. L., Mosier, A. R., Rochester, I. J., Constable, G. A., & Chalk, P. M. (1993). Use of nitrification inhibitors to increase fertilizer nitrogen recovery and lint yield in irrigated cotton. Fertilizer Research, 34, 37–44. crossref

Frink, C. R., Waggoner, P. E., & Ausubel, J. H. (1999). Nitrogen fertilizer: Retrospect and prospect. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96(4), 1175–1180. crossref

Giménez, P. I., Sorlino, D. M., & Trápani, N. (2007). Comparative growth of oilseed and textile flax under different nitrogen supplies. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 38(11–12), 1425–1437. crossref

Giovannetti, M., & Mosse, B. (1980). An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in roots. New Phytologist, 84(3), 489–500. crossref

Goreeva, V., Korepanova, E., Fatykhov, I., & Islamova, C. (2020). Response of oil flax varieties to abiotic conditions of the Middle Cis-Ural region by formation of seed yield. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 48(2), 1005–1016. crossref

Grant, C. A., Derksen, D. A., McLaren, D. L., & Irvine, R. B. (2011). Nitrogen fertilizer and urease inhibitor effects on canola seed quality in a one-pass seeding and fertilizing system. Field Crops Research, 121(2), 201–208. crossref

Gros, C., Lanoisellé, J. L., & Vorobiev, E. (2003). Towards an alternative extraction process for linseed oil. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 81(9), 1059–1065. crossref

Hauck, R. D. (1990). Agronomic and public aspects of soil nitrogen research. Soil Use and Management, 6(2), 66–70. crossref

Hocking, P. J., Randall, P. J., & Pinkerton, A. (1987). Mineral nutrition of linseed and fiber flax. Advances in Agronomy, 41, 221–296. crossref

Hoeppner, J. W., Entz, M. H., McConkey, B. G., Zentner, R. P., & Nagy, C. N. (2006). Energy use and efficiency in two Canadian organic and conventional crop production systems. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 21(1), 60–67. crossref

Homayouni, G., Souri, M. K., & Zarein, M. (2013). Effects of zinc and nitrogen on yield components of five flax genotypes. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research, 13(5-B), 1–5. Retrieved from website

Kariuki, L. W., Masinde, P. W., Onyango, A. N., Githiri, S. M., & Ogila, K. (2014). The growth and seed yield of five linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) varieties as influenced by nitrogen application. Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 22(3), 3493–3509. Retrieved from website

Khajani, F. P., Irannezhad, H., Majidian, M., & Oraki, H. (2012). Influence of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on yield and yield components of flax seed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.) variety Lirina. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6(6), 1050–1054. Retrieved from website

Li, H., Liang, X., Chen, Y., Lian, Y., Tian, G., & Ni, W. (2008). Effect of nitrification inhibitor DMPP on nitrogen leaching, nitrifying organisms, and enzyme activities in a rice-oilseed rape cropping system. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20(2), 149–155. crossref

Mackay, A. D., & Barber, S. A. (1986). Effect of nitrogen on root growth of two corn genotypes in the field1. Agronomy Journal, 78(4), 699–703. crossref

Monreal, M. A., Grant, C. A., Irvine, R. B., Mohr, R. M., McLaren, D. L., & Khakbazan, M. (2011). Crop management effect on arbuscular mycorrhizae and root growth of flax. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 91(2), 315–324. crossref

Phillips, J. M., & Hayman, D. S. (1970). Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 55(1), 158–161. crossref

Qi, X., Wu, W., Shah, F., Peng, S., Huang, J., Cui, K., … Nie, L. (2012). Ammonia volatilization from urea-application influenced germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seeded rice. The Scientific World Journal, 2012(857472), 1–7. crossref

Sánchez-Romera, B., Porcel, R., Ruiz-Lozano, J. M., & Aroca, R. (2018). Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis modifies the effects of a nitric oxide donor (sodium nitroprusside;SNP) and a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor (Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester;L-NAME) on lettuce plants under well watered and drought conditions. Symbiosis, 74, 11–20. crossref

Scharf, P. C., Kitchen, N. R., Sudduth, K. A., Davis, J. G., Hubbard, V. C., & Lory, J. A. (2005). Field-scale variability in optimal nitrogen fertilizer rate for corn. Agronomy Journal, 97(2), 452–461. crossref

Singh, K. K., Mridula, D., Rehal, J., & Barnwal, P. (2011). Flaxseed: A potential source of food, feed and fiber. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 51(3), 210–222. crossref

Smith, S., & Read, D. (2008). Mycorrhizal symbiosis (3rd ed.). London, UK: Academic Press. Retrieved from website

Spiertz, J. H. J. (2010). Nitrogen, sustainable agriculture and food security. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 30, 43–55. crossref

Subbarao, G., Ito, O., Sahrawat, K., Berry, W., Nakahara, K., Ishikawa, T., Watanabe T., Suenaga K., Rondon M.& Rao, I. (2006). Scope and strategies for regulation of nitrification in agricultural systems - Challenges and opportunities. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 25(4), 303–335. crossref

Thingstrup, I., Rubaek, G., Sibbesen, E., & Jakobsen, I. (1998). Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) depends on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for growth and P uptake at intermediate but not high soil P levels in the field. Plant and Soil, 203, 37–46. crossref

Tonon, R. V., Grosso, C. R. F., & Hubinger, M. D. (2011). Influence of emulsion composition and inlet air temperature on the microencapsulation of flaxseed oil by spray drying. Food Research International, 44(1), 282–289. crossref

Vázquez, M. M., Barea, J. M., & Azcón, R. (2001). Impact of soil nitrogen concentration on Glomus spp.-Sinorhizobium interactions as affecting growth, nitrate reductase activity and protein content of Medicago sativa. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 34, 57–63. crossref

Xie, Y., Gan, Y., Li, Y., Niu, J., Gao, Y., An, H., & Li, A. (2015). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on nitrogen accumulation, translocation, and use efficiency in dryland oilseed flax. Agronomy Journal, 107(5), 1931–1939. crossref

DOI: http://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v42i3.2650

Copyright (c) 2020 The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.