Effect of Water-Deficit Stress on the Selected Landraces and Improved Varieties of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Nepal

Seema Baniya, Lal Bahadur Thapa, Chandra Prasad Pokhrel


Water stress is one of the adverse factors affecting growth, development and productivity of rice. It is crucial to explore the drought tolerant rice varieties and improve their quality for sustainable production for droughtprone environments. The aim of this study was to know the ability of selected landraces (Aapjhutta, Kartika, Aanadi and Jhapamansuli) and improved varieties (Khumal-8, Khumal-10, Khumal-11 and Chainung-242) of rice to tolerate water-deficit stress in Nepal. The rice plants were grown in polyethylene pots. The pots were watered for the first two days of seedling transplantation and then watering was stopped. Survival and survival probability of seedlings were calculated. In addition, the concentration of an osmolyte (proline) was estimated after complete death of the plants in each variety. Two rice varieties, Jhapamansuli and Aapjhutta showed the highest seedling survival under water-deficit stress than the improved and other rice varieties. Results indicated that these two varieties have the ability to survive better than others under the stress by accumulating a high amount of proline as a compatible solute. Thus, these varieties can be preserved and utilized for breeding activities to develop drought tolerant and high yielding varieties.


Indigenous rice; Drought; Proline; Survival probability; Seedling survival

Full Text:



Adjao, R. T., & Staatz, J. M. (2015). Asian rice economy changes and implications for sub-Saharan Africa. Global Food Security, 5, 50–55. crossref

Allen, C. D., Macalady, A. K., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., … & Cobb, N. (2010). A global overview of drought and heatinduced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 259(4), 660–684. crossref

Ashraf, M., Akram, N. A., Al-Qurainy, F., & Foolad, M. R. (2011). Drought tolerance: Roles of organic osmolytes, growth regulators, and mineral nutrients. Advances in Agronomy, 111, 249-296. crossref

Auffhammer, M., Ramanathan, V., & Vincent, J. R. (2012). Climate change, the monsoon, and rice yield in India. Climatic Change, 111, 411–424. crossref

Bates, L. S., Waldren, R. P., & Teare, I. D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39, 205–207. crossref

Blum, A. (2017). Osmotic adjustment is a prime drought stress adaptive engine in support of plant production. Plant Cell and Environment, 40, 4-10. crossref

CDD. (2015). Rice varietal mapping in Nepal: implication for development and adoption. Lalitpur, Nepal. Retrieved from pdf

Chalise, S., & Naranpanawa, A. (2016). Climate change adaptation in agriculture: A computable general equilibrium analysis of land-use change in Nepal. Land Use Policy, 59, 241–250. crossref

Chen, H., & Jiang, J.-G. (2010). Osmotic adjustment and plant adaptation to environmental changes related to drought and salinity. Environmental Reviews, 18, 309–319. crossref

Dai, A. (2013). Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models. Nature Climate Change, 3, 52–58. crossref

Devkota, B. P., Acharya, P., & Pokhrel, G. (2016). Released and registered varieties of rice in Nepal and their distribution. In M. N. Paudel, D. R. Bhandari, M. P. Khanal, B. K. Joshi, P. Acharya, & K. H. Ghimire (Eds.), Rice Science and Technology in Nepal (A historical, socio-cultural and technical compendium) (pp. 131-136). Hariharbhawan: Crop Development Directorate (CDD); Lalitpur: Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN). Retrieved from pdf

Dien, D. C., Thu, T. T. P., Moe, K., & Yamakawa, T. (2019). Proline and carbohydrate metabolism in rice varieties (Oryza sativa L.) under various drought and recovery conditions. Plant Physiology Reports, 24, 376-387. crossref

Fita, A., Rodríguez-Burruezo, A., Boscaiu, M., Prohens, J., & Vicente, O. (2015). Breeding and domesticating crops adapted to drought and salinity: A new paradigm for increasing food production. Frontiers in Plant Science, 6, 978. crossref

Gregorio, G. B., Islam, M. R., Vergara, G. V., & Thirumeni, S. (2013). Recent advances in rice science to design salinity and other abiotic stress tolerant rice varieties. Sabrao Journal of Breeding and Genetics, 45(1), 31–41. Retrieved from pdf

Gutaker, R. M., Groen, S. C., Bellis, E. S., Choi, J. Y., Pires, I. S., Bocinsky, R. K., ... & Purugganan, M. D. (2020). Genomic history and ecology of the geographic spread of rice. Nature Plants, 6(5), 492-502. crossref

Haile, G. G., Tang, Q., Sun, S., Huang, Z., Zhang, X., & Liu, X. (2019). Droughts in East Africa: Causes, impacts and resilience. Earth-Science Reviews, 193, 146–161. crossref

Joshi, B. K. (2017). Local germplasm of rice in Nepa: Diversity, characters and uses. In M. N. Paudel, D. R. Bhandari, M. P. Khanal, B. K. Joshi, P. Acharya, & K. H. Ghimire (Eds.), Rice Science and Technology in Nepal (A historical, sociocultural and technical compendium) (pp. 158–178). Hariharbhawan: Crop Development Directorate (CDD); Lalitpur: Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN). Retrieved from website

Kaplan, E. L., & Meier, P. (1958). Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 53(282), 457–481. crossref

Kavi Kishor, P. B., & Sreenivasulu, N. (2014). Is proline accumulation per se correlated with stress tolerance or is proline homeostasis a more critical issue? Plant, Cell and Environment, 37(2), 300–311. crossref

Kumar, S., Dwivedi, S. K., Basu, S., Kumar, G., Mishra, J. S., Koley, T. K., ... & Kumar, A. (2020). Anatomical, agro-morphological and physiological changes in rice under cumulative and stage specific drought conditions prevailed in eastern region of India. Field Crops Research, 245, 107658. crossref

Kumar, V., Shriram, V., Kavi Kishor, P. B., Jawali, N., & Shitole, M. G. (2010). Enhanced proline accumulation and salt stress tolerance of transgenic indica rice by over-expressing P5CSF129A gene. Plant Biotechnology Reports, 4, 37–48. crossref

Lum, M. S., Hanafi, M. M., Rafii, Y. M., & Akmar, A. S. N. (2014). Effect of drought stress on growth, proline and antioxidant enzyme activities of upland rice. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 24(5), 1487–1493. Retrieved from pdf

Luo, L. J. (2010). Breeding for water-saving and droughtresistance rice (WDR) in China. Journal of Experimental Botany, 61(13), 3509–3517. crossref

Mahajan, G., Kumar, V., & Chauhan, B. S. (2017). Rice production in India. In B. S. Chauhan, K. Jabran, & G. Mahajan (Eds.), Rice Production Worldwide (1st ed., pp. 53–91). Cham: Springer. crossref

Marahatta, S. (2016). Chharuwa dhan kheti pravidi. Hariharbhawan, Lalitpur, Nepal: Agriculture Information and Research Center. Retrieved from pdf

Miyan, M. A. (2015). Droughts in Asian least developed countries: Vulnerability and sustainability. Weather and Climate Extremes, 7, 8–23. crossref

Muthayya, S., Sugimoto, J. D., Montgomery, S., & Maberly, G. F. (2014). An overview of global rice production, supply, trade, and consumption. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1324, 7–14. crossref

Mwadzingeni, L., Shimelis, H., Tesfay, S., & Tsilo, T. J. (2016). Screening of bread wheat genotypes for drought tolerance using phenotypic and proline analyses. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, 1276. crossref

Nutan, K. K., Rathore, R. S., Tripathi, A. K., Mishra, M., Pareek, A., & Singla-Pareek, S. L. (2020). Integrating the dynamics of yield traits in rice in response to environmental changes. Journal of Experimental Botany, 71(2), 490-506. crossref

Pandey, V., & Shukla, A. (2015). Acclimation and tolerance strategies of rice under drought stress. Rice Science, 22(4), 147–161. crossref

Per, T. S., Khan, N. A., Reddy, P. S., Masood, A., Hasanuzzaman, M., Khan, M. I. R., & Anjum, N. A. (2017). Approaches in modulating proline metabolism in plants for salt and drought stress tolerance: Phytohormones, mineral nutrients and transgenics. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 115, 126–140. crossref

Rahman, M. A., Kang, S. C., Nagabhatla, N., & Macnee, R. (2017). Impacts of temperature and rainfall variation on rice productivity in major ecosystems of Bangladesh. Agriculture and Food Security, 6, 10. crossref

Sahoo, S., Saha, B., Awasthi, J. P., Omisun, T., Borgohain, P., Hussain, S., … & Panda, S. K. (2019). Physiological introspection into differential drought tolerance in rice cultivars of North East India. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 41, 53. crossref

Seaman, J. A., Sawdon, G. E., Acidri, J., & Petty, C. (2014). The household economy approach. Managing the impact of climate change on poverty and food security in developing countries. Climate Risk Management, 4-5, 59-68. crossref

Seck, P. A., Diagne, A., Mohanty, S., & Wopereis, M. C. S. (2012). Crops that feed the world 7: Rice. Food Security, 4, 7-24. crossref

Serraj, R., McNally, K. L., Slamet-Loedin, I., Kohli, A., Haefele, S. M., Atlin, G., & Kumar, A. (2011). Drought resistance improvement in rice: An integrated genetic and resource management strategy. Plant Production Science, 14(1), 1-14. crossref

Shrestha, A. B., & Aryal, R. (2011). Climate change in Nepal and its impact on Himalayan glaciers. Regional Environmental Change, 11(Suppl. 1), S65–S77. crossref

Suprasanna, P., Nikalje, G. C., & Rai, A. N. (2016). Osmolyte accumulation and implications in plant abiotic stress tolerance. In N. Iqbal, R. Nazar, & N. A. Khan (Eds.), Osmolytes and plants acclimation to changing environment: Emerging omics technologies (pp. 1-12). Springer, New Delhi. crossref

Szabados, L., & Savouré, A. (2010). Proline: A multifunctional amino acid. Trends in Plant Science, 15(2), 89-97. crossref

Teixeira, E. I., Fischer, G., van Velthuizen, H., Walter, C., & Ewert, F. (2013). Global hot-spots of heat stress on agricultural crops due to climate change. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 170, 206-215. crossref

Thapa, L. B., Thapa, H., & Magar, B. G. (2015). Perception, trends and impacts of climate change in Kailali District, Far West Nepal. International Journal of Environment, 4(4), 62-76. crossref

Tripathi, B. P., Mahato, R. K., Yadaw, R. B., Sah, S. N., & Adhikari, B. B. (2012). Adapting rice technologies to climate change. Hydro Nepal: Journal of Water, Energy and Environment, 11(1), 69-72. crossref

Uga, Y., Sugimoto, K., Ogawa, S., Rane, J., Ishitani, M., Hara, N., … & Yano, M. (2013). Control of root system architecture by DEEPER ROOTING 1 increases rice yield under drought conditions. Nature Genetics, 45, 1097-1102. crossref

Upreti, H. K. (2016). Distribution patterns of rice landraces in different agro-ecological zones of Nepal. In M. N. Paudel, D. R. Bhandari, M. P. Khanal, B. K. Joshi, P. Acharya, & K. H. Ghimire (Eds.), Rice Science and Technology in Nepal (A historical, socio-cultural and technical compendium) (pp. 152-157). Hariharbhawan: Crop Development Directorate (CDD); Lalitpur: Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN). Retrieved from pdf

Xiong, J., Zhang, L., Fu, G., Yang, Y., Zhu, C., & Tao, L. (2012). Drought-induced proline accumulation is uninvolved with increased nitric oxide, which alleviates drought stress by decreasing transpiration in rice. Journal of Plant Research, 125, 155-164. crossref

Xoconostle-Cázares, B., Ramírez-Ortega, F. A., FloresElenes, L., & Ruiz-Medrano, R. (2010). Drought tolerance in crop plants. American Journal of Plant Physiology, 5(5), 241-256. crossref

Zegaoui, Z., Planchais, S., Cabassa, C., Djebbar, R., Belbachir, O. A., & Carol, P. (2017). Variation in relative water content, proline accumulation and stress gene expression in two cowpea landraces under drought. Journal of Plant Physiology, 218, 26-34. crossref

Zhang, J., Zhang, S., Cheng, M., Jiang, H., Zhang, X., Peng, C., … & Jin, J. (2018). Effect of drought on agronomic traits of rice and wheat: A metaanalysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(5), 839. crossref

Zhang, P., Li, J., Li, X., Liu, X., Zhao, X., & Lu, Y. (2011). Population structure and genetic diversity in a rice core collection (Oryza sativa L.) investigated with SSR markers. PLoS ONE, 6(12), e27565. crossref

DOI: http://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v42i2.2554

Copyright (c) 2020 The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.