Application of N2-Fixing Cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. SO-A31 to Hydroponically Grown Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatic L.)

Andi Salamah, Nurrahmi Fadilah, Istatik Khoiriyah, Dian Hendrayanti

Abstract


For this research, an application of cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. SO-A31 as a nitrogen source for the growth of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica L.) was carried out using a modified Deep-Water Culture (DWC) hydroponic system, outdoors. A Hoagland medium was used for the growth medium, with the absence or presence of ammonium and nitrate as the nitrogen sources. A 0.7 g fresh weight biomass of 21-day-old Nostoc sp. SO-A31 was inoculated into the system. The four treatment media for this study were HA0 (Hoagland, ammonium free+inoculant), HN0 (Hoagland, nitrate free+inoculant), HA0N0 (Hoagland, ammonium free and nitrate free+inoculant), and HI (Hoagland with ammonium and nitrate +inoculant). AB-mix and complete Hoagland media were used as controls. The result showed that water spinach cultured on HA0 had good vegetative growth, as shown by the high yield of biomass, high number of leaves, high stem growth, and long roots. Inoculation of Nostoc sp. SO-A31 elongated the root of the water spinach plants in all treatments. The presence of Nostoc sp. SO-A31 in the complete Hoagland medium, though, caused chlorosis of the water spinach leaves. This study suggests that water spinach is a nitrate-dependent leafy vegetable.


Keywords


Ammonium; Cyanobacteria; Hydroponic; Nitrate

Full Text:

PDF

References


Chaffin, J. D., & Bridgeman, T. B. (2014). Organic and inorganic nitrogen utilization by nitrogenstressed cyanobacteria during bloom conditions. Journal of Applied Phycology, 26(1), 299–309. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-013-0118-0

Choudhary, K. K. (2011). Occurrence of nitrogenfixing cyanobacteria during different stages of paddy cultivation. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy, 18(1), 73–76. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjpt.v18i1.7842

Deep, P. R., Bhattacharyya, S., & Nayak, B. (2013). Cyanobacteria in wetlands of the industrialized Sambalpur District of India. Aquatic Biosystems, 9, 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/2046-9063-9-14

Fitrianti, A. N., Hendrayanti, D., & Kusmadji, L. R. (2013). Association study of Nostoc strain CPG8, CPG24, and GIA13a with roots of rice (Oryza sativa L.) through scanning electron microscopy. In International Conference on Life Science & Biological Engineering (LSBE-738) (pp. 172–176). Osaka, Japan. Retrieved from http://irep.iium.edu.my/39858/2/20131022103311642.pdf

Górska, A., Lazor, J. W., Zwieniecka, A. K., Benway, C., & Zwieniecki, M. A. (2010). The capacity for nitrate regulation of root hydraulic properties correlates with species’ nitrate uptake rates. Plant and Soil, 337(1–2), 447–455. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-010-0540-x

Hendrayanti, D., Kusmadji, L. R., Yuliana, P., Amanina, M. A., & Septiani, A. (2012). Phylogeny of Indonesian nostoc (cyanobacteria) isolated from paddy fields as inferred from partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene. MAKARA Journal of Science, 16(3), 203–208. https://doi.org/10.7454/mss.v16i3.1483

Horn, K. J. (2008). The effect of nitrates, pH, and dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations on the extracellular polysaccharide of three strains of cyanobacteria belonging to the family Nostocaceae (Master Thesis). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Retrieved from https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/33417

Kalcsits, L. A., Min, X., & Guy, R. D. (2015). Interspecific variation in leaf–root differences in δ15N among three tree species grown with either nitrate or ammonium. Trees, 29(4), 1069–1078. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-015-1186-3

Kumar, K., Mella-Herrera, R. A., & Golden, J. W. (2010). Cyanobacterial heterocysts. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, 2(4), a000315. https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a000315

Markou, G., Vandamme, D., & Muylaert, K. (2014). Microalgal and cyanobacterial cultivation: The supply of nutrients. Water Research, 65, 186–202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.07.025

Nilsson, M., Bhattacharya, J., Rai, A. N., & Bergman, B. (2002). Colonization of roots of rice (Oryza sativa) by symbiotic Nostoc strains. New Phytologist, 156(3), 517–525. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2002.00534.x

Pathak, J., Rajneesh, Maurya, P. K., Singh, S. P., Häder, D.-P., & Sinha, R. P. (2018). Cyanobacterial farming for environment friendly sustainable agriculture practices: innovations and perspectives. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 6, 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2018.00007

Paudel, Y. P., Pradhan, S., Pant, B., & Prasad, B. N. (2012). Role of blue green algae in rice productivity. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 3(8), 332–335. https://doi.org/10.5251/abjna.2012.3.8.332.335

Pereira, I., Ortega, R., Barrientos, L., Moya, M., Reyes, G., & Kramm, V. (2009). Development of a biofertilizer based on filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria for rice crops in Chile. Journal of Applied Phycology, 21(1), 135–144. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-008-9342-4

Petropoulos, S. A., Chatzieustratiou, E., Constantopoulou, E., & Kapotis, G. (2016). Yield and quality of lettuce and rocket grown in floating culture system. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 44(2), 603–612. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha44210611

Singh, S. S., Kunui, K., Minj, R. A., & Singh, P. (2014). Diversity and distribution pattern analysis of cyanobacteria isolated from paddy fields of Chhattisgarh, India. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, 7(4), 462–470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2014.10.009

Syiem, M. B., Nongrum, A. N., Nongbri, B. B., Bhattacharjee, A., Biate, D. L., & Misra, A. K. (2011). Molecular identification and characterization of a rice field cyanobacterium for its possible use as biofertilizer in acidic environment. Research & Reviews: A Journal of Microbiology & Virology, 1(3), 1–12. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272631256_Molecular_Identification_and_Characterization_of_a_Rice_Field_Cyanobacterium_for_Its_Possible_Use_as_Biofertilizer_in_Acidic_Environment

Taíz, L., & Zeiger, E. (2010). Plant physiology (5th ed.). Sunderland MA, USA: SInauer Associates Inc. Retrieved from https://www.sinauer.com/media/wysiwyg/tocs/PlantPhysiology5.pdf

Vatter, T., Neuhäuser, B., Stetter, M., & Ludewig, U. (2015). Regulation of length and density of Arabidopsis root hairs by ammonium and nitrate. Journal of Plant Research, 128(5), 839–848. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-015-0733-8

Zhang, Y., & Zhao, J. (2008). PII, the key regulator of nitrogen metabolism in the cyanobacteria. Science in China Series C: Life Sciences, 51(12), 1056–1065. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-008-0148-z




DOI: http://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v41i2.1867

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.