SOIL QUALITY INDEX IN THE UPSTREAM OF BENGAWAN SOLO RIVER BASIN ACCORDING TO THE SOIL FUNCTION IN NUTRIENT CYCLING BASED ON SOYBEAN PRODUCTION IN AGROFORESTRY

Supriyadi Supriyadi, Sri Hartati, Nur Machfiroh

Abstract


Over the function of the upstream region watersheds causes the soil susceptible to degradation of soil fertility. Agroforestry systems that have been implemented should be reviewed to determine their effectiveness in improving soil fertility using a soil quality index. The varieties of soybean that cultivated in the study site were Grobogan, Kaba, and Argomulyo. The variables of this study consists of organic-C, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), total-N, available-P, available-K, Na, Ca, Mg, base saturation, and electrical conductivity (EC). Soil quality index calculation performed on selected outcome variables principal component analysis (PCA) which is then multiplied by the weights index on each PC. Selected variables from PCA consist of available-P, available-K, base saturation, and pH. Soil quality index values for all types of Agroforestry in the upstream of Bengawan Solo river basin (Wonogiri) is under secondary forest (<4.1) so that it can be concluded that the adoption of Agroforestry in the upstream of Bengawan Solo river basin has not effect on soil quality based on soil functions in the recycling of nutrients. Mean of soybean grain yield in agroforestry system are higher than the mean of national soybean production, but there are an obstacle such as light conditions.


Keywords


agroforestry; land degradation; PCA; soil fertility

Full Text:

PDF

References


Andrews, S.S, D.L. Karlen and J.P. Mitchell. 2002. A comparison of soil quality indexing methods for vegetable production system in Northern California. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment. 90: 25-45.

Cantu, M.P., A. Becker, J.C. Bedano, H.F. Schiavo. 2007. Soil quality evaluation using indicators and indices. Argentina: Cienc. Suelo. 25(2): 173-178.

Fernandez-Ugalde, O., I. Virto, P. Bescansa, M.J. Imaz, A. Enrique and D.L. Karlen. 2009. No-tillage improvement of soil physical quality in calcareous, degradation-prone, semiarid soils. Soil and Tillage Research. 106(1): 29-35.

Indonesian Department of Watershed Manage-ment. 2009. The large of sub-watershed in the range of Solo watershed (in Indo-nesian). Retrieved from: http://www.bpdas solo.net/index.php/profil /wilayah-kerja/ secara-batas-das. Accessed on Decem-ber, 2013.

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. 1982. Automated and semi-automated methods for soil and plant analysis: Manual Series No. 7. Ibadan: Nigeria.

Iriawan, N. and P.A. Septin. 2006. Easy process for statistical data using Minitab 14 (in Indonesian). Yogyakarta: Andi Offset.

Krener, R.J. 2013. Cover crops improve soil biology and soil health. Natural Re-sources Conservation Service.

Lawrence, L. and V. Gupta. 2009. The health of soils in organic farming systems. Farming Ahead. 207: 44-46.

Liu, Z., W. Zhou, J. Shen, S. Li, G. Liang, X. Wang, J. Sun and C. Ai. 2014. Soil quality assessment of acid sulfate paddy soils with different productivities in Guangdong Province, China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 13(1):177-186. doi: 10.1016/ S2095-3119(13)60594-8

Mandal, K.G., K.M. Hati and A.K. Misra. 2009. Biomass yield and energy analysis of soybean production in relation to fertilizer-NPK and organic manure. Biomass and Bioenergy. 33(12): 1670-1679.

Marzaioli, R., R. D’Ascoli, R.A. De Pascale and F.A. Rutigliano. 2010. Soil quality in a Mediterranean area of Southern Italy as related to different land use types. Applied Soil Ecology. 44(3): 205-212.

Moscatelli, M.C., A. Di Tizio, S. Marinari and S. Grego. 2007. Microbial indicators related to soil carbon in Mediterranean land use systems. Soil and Tillage Research. 97(1): 51-59.

Murphy, J. and J.P. Riley. 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta 27: 31-36.

Pramono, I.B. and N. Wahyuningrum. 2009. Run-off and erosion controlling model by vegetative methods (Dungwot sub-watershed study case) (in Indonesian). In: Proceedings of research and techno-logical development of watershed man-agement in an effort to control flooding and erosion-sedimentation. The Ministry of Forestry. Surakarta.

Purnomo, D. and S.M. Sitompul. 2005. Eval-uation of potencies and constraints de-velopment of agroforestry systems in Central Java (in Indonesian). Habitat. 15(3): 197-207.

Purnomo, D., S. Budiastuti, T. Sulistyo and Supriyadi. 2011. Increasing the efficiency of nitrogen fertilization on soybean plants with nitrification inhibitors of various plants contain tannins (in Indonesian). Grant Competitive Research. Surakarta.

Rahman, M.M., D. Harisuseno and D. Sisinggih. 2012. Study of land conservation treatment in Keduang sub-watershed, Bengawan Solo Watershed, Wonogiri Regency (in Indonesian). Jurnal Teknik Pengairan. 3(2): 250-257.

Razak, A. 2008. Agroforestry, the effort of soil and water conservation in watershed management (type of land management for soil fertility improvement and hydrology regulation). Yogyakarta: Magister of Forestry, Gajah Mada University.

Reynolds, P.E., J.A. Simpson, N.V. Thevathasan and A.M. Gordon. 2007. Effects of tree competition on corn and soybean photo-synthesis, growth and yield in a temperate tree-based agroforestry inter-cropping system in southern Ontario, Canada. Ecological Engineering. 29(4): 362-371. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2006. 09.024

Rhoades, J.D. 1982. Cation exchange capacity. In: A.L. Page et al. (Eds.) Method of soil analysis Part 2: Chemical and micro-biological properties (2nd Edition). Wisconsin: ASA and SSSA.

Rofiq, A. 2007. Countermeasures for sedimentation in Wonogiri multipurpose dan reservoir. Retrieved from: http://www.nilim.go.jp/lab/bcg/siryou/tnn/tnn0490pdf/ks049010.pdf. Accessed April 2013.

Sinha, N.K., M. Mohanty, B.P. Meena, H. Das, U.K. Chopra and A.K. Singh. 2014. Soil quality indicators under continous cropping systems in the arid ecosistem of India. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 9(2): 285-293. doi: 10.5897/ AJAR2013.7069

Tan, K.H. 1998. Principle of soil chemistry third edition. Florida: CRC Press. p. 556.

Walkley, A. and I.A. Black. 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science. 37(1): 29-38. doi: 10.1097/00010694-193401000-00003

Warsito, S.P. 2009. The total value of watershed management (in Indonesian). In: Pro-ceedings of research and technological development of watershed management in an effort to control flooding and erosion-sedimentation. The Ministry of Forestry. Surakarta.

World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF). 2004. ICRAF Policy Guidelines Series. Retrieved from: http://worldagroforestry.org/ downloads/ Policies%20and%20Guidelines/ICRAF_policy_gr.pdf. Accessed on October 2013.




DOI: http://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v38i1.496

License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/