AGE STRUCTURE AND SEX RATIO OF THRIPS Scirtothrips dorsalis HOOD (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) ASSOCIATE WITH MANGO AGROECOSYSTEM IN EAST JAVA, INDONESIA

Affandi Affandi, Celia dela Rosa Medina

Abstract


A research aimed to investigate the age structure and sex ratio of S.  dorsalis Hood in  mango agroecosystem was conducted at PT. Trigatra Rajasa farm, Situbondo, East Java, Indonesia.   The research was started from April to May 2013.  A Completely Randomized Design, Analysis of Variance and Least Significant Difference were used to design, knew the variance and significantly different among the treatment, respectively.  Thirteen mango trees set in cross section were sampled and observed for the presence of S. dorsalis including weeds under the mango canopy and four cardinal directions of border.  A weekly sample was done for four weeks. The result showed that instar one and adult were preferred to associate with weeds under the mango canopy and borders compare to mango leaves except second instar. Further, observation was presented that all the age structures were given equal male female sex ratio.   Based on total population numbers, there wasn't significantly difference of age structure and sex ratio of S. dorsalis associate with weeds inside the orchard including mango leaves and borders.   Twenty seven species of weeds were discovered associate with mango agroecosystem and comprehensively discused based on the most dominance and preferred by S. dorsalis

Key Words: S. dorsalis, age structure, sex ratio, mango, weeds.
 

Full Text:

PDF

References


Affandi. 2012. Preliminary survey of thrips associate with mango in East Java, mango central production of Indonesia. Special Problem Report. Department of Entomology, Crop Protection Cluster, University of the Philippines at Los Banos. Unpublished. 9 p.

Aliakbarpour, H and C. S. M. Rawi. 2010. Diurnal activity of four species of Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and efficiencies of three nondestructive sampling techniques for Thrips in mango inflorescences. Journal Economic Entomology, 103(3): 631-640.

Aliakbarpour, H and C. S. M. Rawi. 2011a. The species composition of Thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) inhabiting mango orchards in pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 23(1), 45–61.

Aliakbarpour, H and C. S. M. Rawi. 2011b. Evaluation of yellow sticky traps for monitoring the population of thrips (Thysanoptera) in a mango orchard. Environmental Entomology, 40(4):873-879.

Ananthakrishnan, T.N. 1984. Bioecology of thrips. Michigan, USA: Indira Publishing House Oak Park. 233 p.

Arakaki, N., T. Miyoshi, and H. Noda. 2001. Wolbachia-mediated parthenogenesis in the predatory thrips Franklinothrips vespiformis (Thysanoptera: Insecta). Proceding of Royal Society. London, 268: 1011-1016.

Brodbeck, B. V., J. Stavisky, J.E. Funderburk, P. C. Andersen and S. M. Olson. 2001. Flower nitrogen status and populations of Frankliniella occidentalis feeding on Lycopersicon esculentum. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 99(2): 165-172. ,

Brown, W. D. & Keller, L. 2000. Colony sex ratios vary with queen number but not relatedness asymmetry in the ant Formica exsecta. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 267:1751-1757.

Chellemi, D.O., J.E. Funderburk and D.W. Hall. 1994. Seasonal abundance of flower inhabiting Frankliniella species (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) on wild plant host. Environmental Ecology, 23: 337-342.

Chin, D., H. Brown, B. Conde, M. Neal, D. Hamilton, M. Hoult, C. Moore, B. Thistleton, L. Ulyatt and L. Zhang. 2010. Field Guide: Pest, Beneficial, Disease and Disorders of mangoes. NT Government, Dept. of Resources, Australia. 170 p.

Cho, K., C.S. Eckel, J.F. Walgenbach and G.G. Kennedy. 1995. Comparison of colored sticky traps for maonitoring Thrips populations (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) in staked tomato fields. Journal of Entomological Science, 30(2): 176-190.

Chu, C., M.A. Ciomperlik., N. Chang., M.Richards and T.J. Henneberry. 2006. Developing and Evaluating Traps for Monitoring Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Florida Entomologist 89(1): 47-55.

Funderburk, J.E., J. Stavisky., C. Tipping., D. Gorbet., T. Momol and R. Berger. 2002. Infection of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) in peanut by the parasitic nematode Thripinema fuscu(Thylenchidae : Allantonematidae). Environmental Entomology, 31, 342-346.

Godfray, H.C.J. and J.H. Werren. 1996. Recent development in sex ratio studies. TREE, 71 (2): 59-63.

Grove, T., J.H. Giliomee and K.L. Pringle. 2000. Thrips (Thysanoptera) species associated with mango trees in South Africa. African Entomology, 9(2): 153 -162.

Hurst, G., F. M. Jiggins, J. H. G. Von Der Schulenburg, D. Bertrand, J. H. Werren, S. West, I. I. Boriacheva, I. A. Zakharov, R. Stouthamer, and M.E.N. Majerus. 1999. Male killing Wolbachia in two species of insects. Proceding of Royal Society. London, 266: 735-740.

Kumar, V., G. Kakkar, C.L. McKenzie, D.R. Seal and L.S. Osborne. 2013. An overview of chilli Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) biology, distribution and management. In. Solenski, S and M. Larramendy (Eds.). Weeds and pest control – conventional and new challenges. Intech. Rijeka, Croatia. pp. 53-77

Lewis, T. 1973. Thrips: their biology, ecology and economic important. Academic press London and New York. 348 p.

Moritz, G. 1997. Structure, growth and development. In. Lewis, T. (Ed.) Thrips as crop pestsCAB International Oxon. New York. . pp. 15–64.

Morton, J. 1987. Mango. In. Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. p. 221–239.

Mound, L.A. 2005. Thysanoptera: diversity and interaction. Annual Review of Entomology, 50: 247-269.

Moody, K., C.E. Monroe, R.T. Lubigan and C.E. Paller Jr. 1984. Major weeds of the Philippines, Weeds Science Society of the Philippines. University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna, Philippines. 328 p.

Mukhejee, S.K. and R.E. litz. 2009. Introduction: botany and importance p. 1-18. In: R.E. Litz (Ed.) The mango: botany, production and uses.

CAB eBook.

Muniappan, R., B.M. Shepard, G.R. Carnel and P.A-C. Ooi. 2012. Arthropod pests of horticultural crops in tropical Asia. CAB International, Massachusetts, USA. 168 p.

Murai, T. 2000. Effect of temperature on development and reproduction of the onion thrips,Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on pollen and honey solution. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 35: 499–504.

Nation, J.L. 2001. Insect physiology and biochemistry. CRC Press, Florida, USA. 485 p.

Nunncy, L. 1983. Sex differences in larval competition in Drosophila melanogaster. The testing of a competition model and its relevance to frequency dependent selection. The American Naturalist, 121(1):67–93.

Pearsall, I. and Myers, J.H. 2000. Population dynamics of western flower thrips (thysanoptera: thripidae) in nectarine orchards in british columbia. Journal of Economic Entomology, 93(2): 264-275.

Peña, J.E., J. L. Sharp and M. Wysoki. 2002. Tropical fruit pests and pollinators: biology, economic importance, natural enemies and control. CABI Publishing, Wellingford, UK. 443 p.

Pickett, C.H., L.T. Wilson and D. Gonzalez. 1988. Population dynamics and within-plant distribution of the western flower thrips (thysanoptera: thripidae), an early-season predator of spider mites infesting cotton. Journal of Environmental Entomology, 17(3): 551-559.

Rocha, F.H., F. Infante., J. Quilantan., A. Goldarazena and J.E. Funderburk. 2012. ‘ata ulfo’ mango flowers contain a diversity of thrips (thysanoptera). Florida Entomologist, 95(1):171 -178.

Rumana, R and U. Sugandi. 1999. Gulma dan teknik pengendalian. Kanisius. Jakarta. Indonesia. 88 p.

Seal, D.R., W. Klassen and V. Kumar. 2010. Biological Pameter of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) on Selected Host. Environmental Entomology, 39(5): 1389-1398.

Seal, D.R., M. Ciomperlik, M.L. Richards and W. Klassen. 2006. Comparative effectiveness of chemical pesticide again the chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) on pepper and their compatibility with natural enemies. Crop Protection, 25: 949-955.

Suputa, Cahyaniati, A. Kustaryati, A. Hasyim, I.U. Hasanah, A. C. Ratnaningrum, M. Railan, S. Riyadi, B. Arga, and Suryanti. 2010. Pedoman pengenalan dan pengendalian organisme pengganggu tanaman pada tanaman mangga. Direktorat Perlindungan Tanaman Hortikultura. Direktoral Jendral Hortikultura. 218 p.

Teulon, D.A.J., T.E. Kolb., E.A. Cameron., L.H. Mccornick and G.A. Hoover. 1993. Pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel) (Tysanoptera : Thripidae). New Zealand Entomologist, 20: 67-69.

Toapanta, M., J.E. Fanderburk., R.J. Beshear., S.M. Olson and T.P. Mack. 1996. Abundance of Frankliniella spp. (Tysanoptera : Thripidae) on winter and spring host plant. Environmental ecology, 25: 793-800.

Tsai, J.H., B.S. Yue., J.E. Funderburk and S.E. Webb. 1996. Effect of plant pollen on growth and reproduction of Frankliniella bispinosa. Acta Horticulture, 431: 535-541.

Tsuchiya, M., S. Masui and N. Kuboyama. 1995. Color Attraction of Yellow Tea Thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis HOOD). Japan Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 39: 299-303.

Vasiliu-oromulu, L. 2002. The dynamics of the sex ratio index of thrips populations in mountainous meadows. In. Marullo, R and L. A. Mound (Eds.) Conference Proceedings of Thrips and tospoviruses : proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Thysanoptera. Calabria, Italy. pp. 315-324.

Weeks, A. R., and J. A. Breeuwer. 2001. Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis in a genus of phytophagous mites. Proceding of Biological Science, 268: 2245 - 2251.

Werren, J. H. 1997. Biology of Wolbachia. Annual Review of Entomology, 42(1): 587-609.




DOI: http://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v35i3.326