Influence of Rhizobacteria on Soil Ion Concentration under Paddy Cultivation

Elmi Junita Tarigan, Cahyo Prayogo, Yu-Ting Weng, Chesly Kit Kobua, Ying-Tzy Jou, Yu-Min Wang


Sustainable agriculture requires nutrient management options that can increase crop yields that are profitable for N nutrient availability and are environmentally friendly. However, N nutrient is dynamic and easy to lose, and excessive use of chemical N fertilizers has a negative impact on the environment. Biofertilizer by rhizobacteria is an effective way to maintain a reliable N-supply for rice growth. This study investigates the effect of a different combination of rhizobacterial fertilizers on nitrogen ion concentration in the soil and total rice production. The field experiment was conducted in two seasons. There were three treatments, including PGPR with 25% CF, PGPR with 50% CF, and 100% CF. The soil sample was taken from each treatment in six growth stages of rice i.e. 15, 36, 50, 72, 100, and 118 days after transplanting. Soil chemicals NH4+ and NO3- were analyzed by Ion Chromatography. The results showed that the uniformity of NH4+ and NO3- in the soil were the highest in fertilizer application with PGPR. The application of PGPR with 50% CF confirms that it can increase rice yields by 25.5% and 12.9%, respectively. The application of rhizobacteria can reduce the use of chemical fertilizers.


Bacteria; Fertilizer; Nitrogen; Sustainable Agriculture

Full Text:



Anli, M., Baslam, M., Tahiri, A., Raklami, A., Symanczik, S., Boutasknit, A., ... Meddich, A. (2020). Biofertilizers as strategies to improve photosynthetic apparatus, growth, and drought stress tolerance in the date palm. Frontiers in Plant Science, 11, 516818.

Atieno, M., Herrmann, L., Nguyen, H. T., Phan, H. T., Nguyen, N. K., Srean, P., ... Lesueura, D. (2020). Assessment of biofertilizer use for sustainable agriculture in the Great Mekong Region. Journal of Environmental Management, 275, 111300.

Basu, A., Prasad, P., Das, S. N., Kalam, S., Sayyed, R. Z., Reddy, M. S., & El Enshasy, H. (2021). Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) as green bioinoculants: recent developments, constraints, and prospects. Sustainability, 13(3), 1140.

Bordoloi, N., Baruah, K. K., Bhattacharyya, P., & Gupta, P. K. (2019). Impact of nitrogen fertilization and tillage practices on nitrous oxide emission from a summer rice ecosystem. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 65(11), 1493-1506.

Cao, X. C., Li, X. Y., Zhu, L. F., Zhang, J. H., Yu, S. M., Wu, L. H., & Jin, Q. Y. (2016). Effects of water management on rice nitrogen utilization: A review. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 36(13), 3882-3890.

Cao, Y., & Yin, B. (2015). Effects of integrated highefficiency practice versus conventional practice on rice yield and N fate. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 202, 1-7.

Cao, Y., Sun, H., Liu, Y., Fu, Z., Chen, G., Zou, G., & Zhou, S. (2017). Reducing N losses through surface runoff from rice-wheat rotation by improving fertilizer management. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(5), 4841- 4850.

Goswami, D., Thakker, J. N., & Dhandhukia, P.C. (2016). Portraying mechanics of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): a review. Cogent Food and Agriculture 2(1), 1127500

Goswami, M., & Deka, S. (2020). Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria—alleviators of abiotic stresses in soil: a review. Pedosphere, 30, 40-61.

Gouda, S., Kerry, R. G., Das, G., Paramithiotis, S., Shin, H.-S., & Patra, J. K. (2018). Revitalization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for sustainable development in agriculture. Microbiological Research, 206, 131-140.

Haghshenas, H., & Malidarreh, A. G. (2021). Response of yield and yield components of released rice cultivars from 1990-2010 to nitrogen rates. Central Asian Journal of Plant Science Innovation, 1, 23-31.

Konkolewska, A., Piechalak, A., Ciszewska, L., AntosKrzemińska, N., Skrzypczak, T., Hanć, A., ... Małecka, A. (2020). Combined use of companion planting and PGPR for the assisted phytoextraction of trace metals (Zn, Pb, Cd). Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27, 13809-13825.

Kumar, Akhilesh., & Verma, J. P. (2019). The role of microbes to improve crop productivity and soil health. In V. Achal & A. Mukherjee (Eds.), Ecological Wisdom Inspired Restoration Engineering (pp. 249–265). Singapore: Springer.

Kumar, Arvind. (2016). Phosphate solubilizing bacteria in agriculture biotechnology : Diversity, mechanism and their role in plant growth and crop yield. International Journal of Advanced Research, 4(4), 116–124. Retrieved from,-mechanism-and-their-role-in-plant-growth-andcrop-yield.-/

Kumar, M., & Ashraf, S. (2017). Role of Trichoderma spp. as a biocontrol agent of fungal plant pathogens. In V. Kumar, M. Kumar, S. Sharma, & R. Prasad (Eds.), Probiotics and Plant Health (pp. 497- 506). Singapore: Springer.

Liu, Y., Gao, J., Bai, Z., Wu, S., Li, X., Wang, N., ... Zhuang, X. (2021). Unraveling mechanisms and impact of microbial recruitment on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the rhizosphere mediated by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Microorganisms, 9(1), 161.

Nawaz, A., Shahbaz, M., Asadullah, A. L., Imran, A., Marghoob, M. U., Imtiaz, M., & Mubeen, F. (2020). Potential of salt tolerant PGPR in growth and yield augmentation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under saline conditions. Frontiers in Microbiology, 11, 02019. https://doi.org10.3389/fmicb.2020.02019

Norton, J. M., & Stark, J. M. (2011). Regulation and measurement of nitrification in terrestrial systems. In Research on Nitrification and Related Processes, Part A (Vol. 486, pp. 343-368). Academic Press.

Paungfoo-Lonhienne, C., Lonhienne, T. G. A., Yeoh, Y. K., Donose, B. C., Webb, R. I., Parsons, J., & Ragan, M. A. (2016). Crosstalk between sugarcane and a plant-growth promoting Burkholderia species. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 37389.

Rouphael, Y., & Colla, G. (2020). Editorial: Biostimulations in agriculture. Frontiers in Plant Science, 11, 40.

Sahu, A., Bhattacharjya, S., Mandai, A., Thakur, J. K., Atoliya, N., Sahu, N., & Patra, A. K. (2018). Microbes: A sustainable approach for enhancing nutrient availability in agricultural soils. In V. Meena (Ed.), Role of Rhizospheric Microbes in Soil: Volume 2: Nutrient Management and Crop Improvement (pp. 47–75). Singapore: Springer.

Santoyo, G., Hernández-Pacheco, C., HernándezSalmerón, J., & Hernández-León, R. (2017). The role of abiotic factors modulating the plantmicrobe-soil interactions: Toward sustainable agriculture. A review. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 15(1), 1–15.

Sattar, A., Naveed, M., Ali, M., Zahir, Z. A., Nadeem, S. M., Yaseen, M., & Meena, H. N. (2019). Perspectives of potassium solubilizing microbes in sustainable food production system: A review. Applied Soil Ecology, 133, 146–159.

Savci, S. (2012). An agricultural pollutant: chemical fertilizer. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 3(1), 77-80. https://doi: 10.7763/IJESD.2012.V3.191

Singh, J. S., & Gupta, V. K. (2018). Soil microbial biomass: A key soil driver in management of ecosystem functioning. Science of The Total Environment, 634, 497–500.

Slepetiene, A., Volungevicius, J., Jurgutis, L., Liaudanskiene, I., Amaleviciute-Volunge, K., Slepetys, J., & Ceseviciene, J. (2020). The potential of digestate as a biofertilizer in eroded soils of Lithuania. Waste Management, 102, 441–451.

Soumare, A., Diedhiou, A. G., Thuita, M., Hafidi, M., Ouhdouch, Y., Gopalakrishnan, S., & Kouisni, L. (2020). Exploiting biological nitrogen fixation: A route towards a sustainable agriculture. Plants, 9(8), 1011.

Sukul, P., Kumar, J., Rani, A., Abdillahi, A, M., Rakesh, R. B., & Kumar, M. H. (2021). Functioning of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their mode of actions: An overview from chemistry point of view. Plant Archives, 21(suppl. 1), 628-638.

Tegeder, M., & Masclaux-Daubresse, C. (2018). Source and sink mechanisms of nitrogen transport and use. New Phytologist, 217(1), 35-53.

Xu, G., Fan, X., & Miller. A.J. (2012). Plant nitrogen assimilation and use efficiency. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 63, 153-182.

Yagmur, B., & Gunes, A. (2021). Evaluation of the effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield and quality parameters of tomato plants in organic agriculture by principal component analysis (PCA). Gesunde Pflanzen, 73, 219-228.

Zhang, L., Hu, B., Deng, K., Gao, X., Sun, G., Zhang, Z., Li, P., Wang, W., Li, H., & Zhang, Z. 2019. NRT1.1B improves selenium concentrations in rice grains by facilitating selenomethinone translocation. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 17, 1058-068.

Zhou, L., Song, C., Li, Z., & Kuipers, O. P. (2021). Antimicrobial activity screening of rhizosphere soil bacteria from tomato and genomebased analysis of their antimicrobial biosynthetic potential. BMC Genomics, 22, 29.


Copyright (c) 2021 The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.