Influence of Pranic Agriculture on Morphological Traits, Chlorophyll Content and Genetic Polymorphism of Ridge Gourd (Luffa acutangula L. Roxb.) Assessed by RAPD Marker Analysis

R. Poornima, K. Nagendra Prasad, H. A. Yathindra, Srikanth N. Jois


Pranic agriculture is a newly emerging concept of sustainable and eco-friendly agriculture. Pranic agriculture techniques are applied to plants before sowing and at the time of plant development to improve growth and yield. The present study aimed to understand the influence of pranic agriculture on growth, yield, and genetic polymorphism of ridge gourd. An increase in root length by 38%, stem girth by 8%, and the number of days taken for the premier harvest was advanced and found to be significant (p<.05) in pranic treated plots against the control. Chlorophyll content was 26% higher (p<.05) in pranic treated plants when compared to control. To find out the probable effects of pranic agriculture at molecular levels, RAPD marker analysis was carried out and average polymorphism up to 47% was observed between pranic and control treatments. Thus, pranic treatment was found to be very effective in increasing the overall growth and yield of ridge gourd. Further, in-depth studies are warranted about molecular mechanisms that are bringing changes in the plants after pranic treatment.


Chlorophyll; Pranic healing; Sustainable agriculture; Vegetable

Full Text:



Aladele, S. E., Ariyo, O. J., & de Lapena, R. (2008). Genetic relationships among West African okra (Abelmoschus caillei) and Asian genotypes (Abelmoschus esculentus) using RAPD. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(10), 1426–1431. Retrieved from website

Babu, K. N., Rajesh, M. K., Samsudeen, K., Minoo, D., Suraby, E. J., Anupama, K., & Ritto, P. (2014). Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and derived techniques. In P. Besse (Ed.), Methods in Molecular Biology (Methods and Protocols) (pp. 191–209). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. crossref

Bai, F., Sun, C., Liu, Z., Shen, J., Shen, Y., Ge, R., … Liu, and X. (2000). Seeds induced to germinate rapidly by mentally projected ’Qi energy’ are apparently genetically altered. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 28(01), 3–8. crossref

Esteban, R., Barrutia, O., Artetxe, U., Fernández-Marín, B., Hernández, A., & García-Plazaola, J. I. (2015). Internal and external factors affecting photosynthetic pigment composition in plants: A meta-analytical approach. New Phytologist, 206(1), 268–280. crossref

Evans, J. R. (2013). Improving photosynthesis. Plant Physiology, 162(4), 1780–1793. crossref

Ezin, V., Dasenka, T., Agbobatinkpo, P. B., Ahanchede, A., & Handa, A. K. (2018). Molecular genetics of salt tolerance in tomato F2 segregating population with the aid of RAPD markers. Agricultural Sciences, 9(12), 1553–1568. crossref

Ghani, M. A., Amjad, M., Iqbal, Q., Nawaz, A., Ahmad, T., Hafeez, O. B. A., & Abbas, M. (2013). Efficacy of plant growth regulators on sex expression, earliness and yield components in bitter gourd. Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences, 11(3), 218–224. Retrieved from pdf

Hasegawa, P. M., Bressan, R. A., Zhu, J.-K., & Bohnert, H. J. (2000). Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 51, 463–499. crossref

Hoque, S., & Rabbani, M. G. (2009). Assessment of genetic relationship among landraces of Bangladeshi ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula Roxb.) using RAPD markers. Journal of Scientific Research, 1(3), 615–623. crossref

Hou, T. Z., & Mooneyham, R. E. (1999). Applied studies of plant meridian system: I. The effect of agri-wave technology on yield and quality of tomato. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 27(1), 1–10. crossref

Jisha, K. C., & Puthur, J. T. (2014). Seed halopriming outdo hydropriming in enhancing seedling vigor and osmotic stress tolerance potential of rice varieties. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology, 17, 209–219. crossref

Jois, S. N., Prasad, K. N., & Shalini, N. S. (2019). Enhancement of shelf life of brinjal during storage using pranic agriculture protocol. Ecology, Environment and Conservation Paper, 25(3), 1251–1254. Retrieved from website

Jois, S. N., Roohie, K., D’Souza, L., Suma, F., Devaki, C. S., Urooj, A., … Prasad, N. N. (2015). Physicochemical qualities of tomato fruits as influenced by pranic treatment - an ancient technique for enhanced crop development. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(46), 1–6. crossref

Jungyun, J., Jeeye, P., & Kumar, I. R. (2016). Seed germination test with the influence of sriyantra, pyramid and maha mrtyunjaya mantra. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 15(4), 680–684. Retrieved from pdf

Keerthika, T., Devaki, C. S., Suma, F., & Urooj, A. (2016). Studies on the nutritional and quality characteristics of Cucumis sativus varieties. Agricultural Science Research Journal, 6(4), 79–85. Retrieved from website

Khan, A. S. M. M. R., Rabbani, M. G., Islam, M. S., Rashid, M. H., & Alam, A. K. M. M. (2009). Genetic diversity in pointe gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb) revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Thai Journal of Agricultural Science, 42(2), 61–69. Retrieved from pdf

Kirlian, S. D. (1949). Method for receiving photographic pictures of different types of objects [Patent]. N106401. USSR. Retrieved from website

Koppad, S. B., Chavan, M. L., Hallur, R. H., Rathod, V., & Shantappa, T. (2015). Variability and character association studies in ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula Roxb.) with reference to yield attributes. Journal of Global Biosciences, 4(5), 2332–2342. Retrieved from pdf

Kura-hotta, M., Satoh, K., & Katoh, S. (1987). Relationship between photosynthesis and chlorophyll content during leaf senescence of rice seedlings. Plant and Cell Physiology, 28(7), 1321–1329. crossref

Lee, C.-T., & Wu, H.-C. (2019). Effect of biofield treatment on growth and physiology of hydroponicallygrown lettuce and bok choy plants. AGRIVITA Journal of Agricultural Science, 41(3), 395–404. crossref

Mizoguchi, T., Ichimura, K., Yoshida, R., & Shinozaki, K. (2000). MAP kinase cascades in Arabidopsis: Their roles in stress and hormone responses. In H. Hirt (Ed.), MAP Kinases in Plant Signal Transduction. Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation (pp. 29–38). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. crossref

Neugart, S., Krumbein, A., & Zrenner, R. (2016). Influence of light and temperature on gene expression leading to accumulation of specific flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica). Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, 326. crossref

Pandey, S., Kumar, S., Mishra, U., Rai, A., Singh, M., & Rai, M. (2008). Genetic diversity in Indian ash gourd (Benincasa hispida) accessions as revealed by quantitative traits and RAPD markers. Scientia Horticulturae, 118(1), 80–86. crossref

Paque, S., & Weijers, D. (2016). Q&A: Auxin: the plant molecule that influences almost anything. BMC Biology, 14(1), 67. crossref

Prasad, K. N., & Jois, S. N. (2019). Pranic agriculture improves drumstick (Moringa olifera L.) germination and seedling growth. Ecology, Environment and Conservation Paper, 25(4), 1752–1755. Retrieved from website

Prasad, K. N., & Jois, S. N. (2020). Enhancement of papaya (Carica papaya) seedling growth by pranic agriculture. AGRIVITA Journal of Agricultural Science, 42(1), 191–196. crossref

Qi, D., Hu, T., Song, X., & Zhang, M. (2019). Effect of nitrogen supply method on root growth and grain yield of maize under alternate partial root-zone irrigation. Scientific Reports, 9, 8191. crossref

Rahman, A. H. M. M., Anisuzzaman, M., Ahmed, F., Rafiul Islam, A. K., & Naderuzzaman, A. T. M. (2008). Study of nutritive value and medicinal uses of cultivated cucurbits. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 4(5), 555–558. Retrieved from website

Rathod, V., Narasegowda, N. C., Papanna, N., & Simon, L. (2008). Evaluation of genetic diversity and genome fingerprinting of bitter gourd genotypes (Momordica charantia L.) by morphological and RAPD markers. International Journal of Plant Breeding, 2(2), 79–84. Retrieved from pdf

Resmi, J., & Sreelathakumary, I. (2011). RAPD markers for genetic variability studies in ashgourd Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 7(4), 1097–1106. Retrieved from pdf

Reynolds, M., Bonnett, D., Chapman, S. C., Furbank, R. T., Manés, Y., Mather, D. E., & Parry, M. A. J. (2011). Raising yield potential of wheat. I. Overview of a consortium approach and breeding strategies. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62(2), 439–452. crossref

Rezadoost, M. H., Kordrostami, M., & Kumleh, H. H. (2016). An efficient protocol for isolation of inhibitor-free nucleic acids even from recalcitrant plants. 3 Biotech, 6(1), 61. crossref

Shinde, V., Sances, F., Patil, S., & Spence, A. (2012). Impact of biofield treatment on growth and yield of lettuce and tomato. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 6(10), 100–105. crossref

Shoaf, W. T., & Lium, B. W. (1976). Improved extraction of chlorophyll a and b from algae using dimethyl sulfoxide. Limnology and Oceanography, 21(6), 926–928. crossref

Sui, C. K. (2000). The ancient science and art of pranic healing (3rd ed.). Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved from website

Suzuki, N., Rivero, R. M., Shulaev, V., Blumwald, E., & Mittler, R. (2014). Abiotic and biotic stress combinations. New Phytologist, 203, 32–43. crossref

Tyagi, S. V. S., Sharma, P., Siddiqui, S. A., & Khandelwal, R. C. (2010). Combining ability for yield and fruit quality in Luffa. International Journal of Vegetable Science, 16(3), 267–277. crossref

Wang, W., Vinocur, B., & Altman, A. (2003). Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: Towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Planta, 218, 1–14. crossref

Yadav, S. K., Babu, S., Yadav, M. K., Singh, K., Yadav, G. S., & Pal, S. (2013). A review of organic farming for sustainable agriculture in Northern India. International Journal of Agronomy, 2013, 718145. crossref

Yamasaki, S., Fujii, N., & Takahashi, H. (2003). Characterization of ethylene effects on sex determination in cucumber plants. Sexual Plant Reproduction, 16, 103–111. crossref

Yathindra, H. A., Jois, S. N., & D’Souza, L. (2017a). Enhancement of seed germination, fruit set and yield of pole beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by pranic healing. Ecology, Environment and Conservation Paper, 23(2), 812–814. Retrieved from website

Yathindra, H. A., Jois, S. N., Prasad, K. N., & D’Souza, L. (2017b). Influence of pranic agriculture on germination, flowering and yield of European cucumber. Ecology, Environment and Conservation Paper, 23(3), 1770–1773. Retrieved from website


Copyright (c) 2020 The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.