Epidemiology of Fire Blight in Fruit Crops in Kazakhstan

Zhansaya Ziyathanovna Umiraliyeva, Bakyt Kenzhekozhaevich Kopzhassarov, Aliya Abdrahimovna Jaimurzina, Zhan Borisovich Niyazbekov, Gulmira Zhanybekovna Issenova, Alnura Kairatovna Tursunova, Gulzat Ergaziyevna Berganayeva

Abstract


A survey of fruit crops in 13 regions of Kazakhstan was carried out to identify foci of fire blight, the extent of its spread, the range of affected crops, and the identification of infection reserves. It was established that the disease was mainly concentrated in the south and southeast of Kazakhstan, in the main fruit growing zone. Symptoms of fire blight were characteristic of two bacterial diseases: namely, necrosis, with Pseudomonas syringae Van. Hall. as the causative agent and fire blight as such, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al. A study of the seasonal dynamics of the disease for six years showed that the optimal conditions for the multiplication and accumulation of infection were created in the spring, during the flowering and growth of young shoots (May-June), when the humidity was above 60% and the temperature was within 16-20°C. However, if spring was cold and lasted longer than usual during this period (with temperature below 16°C), despite the high humidity, the disease would not develop. Throughout the years of research, the development of the disease stopped due to the dry and hot period in July and August. The development of the disease was significantly affected by the microclimate in the gardens. With thickened plantings and compaction of foliage, moisture was retained and condensation formed, which provokes the development of the disease. The authors performed bacteriological analyses to isolate and identify the causative agent of fire blight from various fruit and wild cultures of the Rosaceae family, using classical bacteriological and molecular genetic methods. Two types of bacteria were isolated from the samples affected by the disease, namely E. amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight, and P. syringae, the causative agent of bacterial necrosis. The results of the studies on the identification of bacterial species E. amylovora and P. syringae Van Hall. were confirmed by Swiss scientists from the Agroscope research center based on an immuno-chromatographic test (Agri Strip Bioreba AG) and by Russian scientists at the All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Quarantine using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, FLASH polymerase chain reaction, and polymerase chain reaction in real-time.

Keywords


antagonists, epidemiology, fire blight, monitoring, saprophytes, seasonal dynamics, weather conditions

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v43i2.2674

Copyright (c) 2021 Zhansaya Ziyathanovna Umiraliyeva, Bakyt Kenzhekozhaevich Kopzhassarov, Aliya Abdrahimovna Jaimurzina, Zhan Borisovich Niyazbekov, Gulmira Zhanybekovna Issenova, Alnura Kairatovna Tursunova, Gulzat Ergaziyevna Berganayeva

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