Pesticides Residues in Fresh Food of Plant Origin: Case Study in Indonesia

Agung Hendriadi, Sulistiyorini Sulistiyorini, Miranti Reine Devilana

Abstract


The use of pesticides in fresh food of plant origin (FFPO) such as horticulture products is widely known. Such broad implementation of pesticide can result in a tremendous usage of pesticides and, afterward, in intolerable levels of pesticide residues in the products. In this work, we analyzed the pesticide residues in FFPO - which include fruits, vegetables, and rice - from some provinces in Indonesia. These products are taken from the market as samples for this analysis and they were not washed before the test. The test for pesticide residues uses two kinds of tests, which are: Rapid Test Kit that gives the qualitative result (presence or absence of active ingredients residual) without showing the amount of pesticide residue itself; and laboratory test that gives a quantitative result of pesticide active ingredients residual. Lab test data analysis shows that 98.58% of total samples from 26 provinces do not contain or have residues under MRLs so that it is stated as achieving food safety requirements. The pesticide residues include Organophosphate, Carbamate, Pyrethroid, Organochlorine, N-Phenylpyrazole, and Neonicotinoid groups of pesticide. Considering the effect of pesticide (residue) on human health and to environmental sustainability, efforts to control pesticide use need to be continued.


Keywords


Active ingredients; Food safety; Fresh food of plant origin; Pesticide; Residue

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdou, K. A., & El-Atta, H. M. A. (2018). Epidemiology of pesticides in developing countries. Advances in Clinical Toxicology, 3(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.23880/act-16000128

Ahmed, A., Randhawa, M. A., Yusuf, M. J., & Khalid, N. (2011). effect of processing on pesticide residues in food crops - A review. Journal of Agricultural Research, 49(3), 379-390. Retrieved from https://apply.jar.punjab.gov.pk/upload/1374741403_92_543__2931--4013-1_%2810%29.pdf

Alegantina, S., Reini, M., & Lastari, P. (2005). Penelitian kandungan organofosfat dalam tomat dan slada yang beredar di beberapa jenis pasar di DKI Jakarta. Media Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, 15(1), 44–49. Retrieved from http://ejournal.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/MPK/article/view/1143

Aloizou, A.-M., Siokas, V., Vogiatzi, C., Peristeri, E., Docea, A. O., Petrakis, D., Dardiotis, E. (2020). Pesticides, cognitive functions and dementia: A review. Toxicology Letters, 326, 31–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2020.03.005

Amilia, E., Joy, B., & Sunardi, S. (2016). Residu pestisida pada tanaman hortikultura (Studi kasus di Desa Cihanjuang Rahayu Kecamatan Parongpong Kabupaten Bandung Barat). Agrikultura, 27(1), 23–29. https://doi.org/10.24198/agrikultura.v27i1.8473

Ardiwinata, A. N., & Nursyamsi, D. (2012). Residu pestisida di sentra produksi padi di Jawa Tengah. Pangan, 21(1), 39–58. Retrieved from https://jurnalpangan.com/index.php/pangan/article/view/103

Bouchard, M. F., Chevrier, J., Harley, K. G., Kogut, K., Vedar, M., Calderon, N., … Eskenazi, B. (2011). Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and IQ in 7-year-old children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(8), 1189–1195. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1003185

BPS. (2019). Statistik tanaman sayuran dan buahbuahan semusim Indonesia 2018. Jakarta, ID: Badan Pusat Statistik. Retrieved from https://www.bps.go.id/publication/2019/10/07/9c5dede09c805bc38302ea1c/statistik-tanaman-sayuran-dan-buah---buahan-semusim-indonesia-2018.html

BSN. (2008). SNI 7313:2008. Indonesia. Retrieved from http://www.chilealimentosinodata.cl/uploads/rules/indonesia-batas-maksimum-pestisida.pdf?v1.6

Büchel, K. H. (1983). Chemistry of pesticides. Minnesota: Wiley. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.id/books/about/Chemistry_of_Pesticides.html?id=HGHjtgzkRQwC&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y

Codex Alimentarius International Food Standards. (2020). 158 - Glyphosate. Rome, IT. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/codex-texts/dbs/pestres/pesticide-detail/en/?p_id=158

Costa, C., Teodoro, M., Rugolo, C. A., Alibrando, C., Giambò, F., Briguglio, G., & Fenga, C. (2020). MicroRNAs alteration as early biomarkers for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases: New challenges in pesticides exposure. Toxicology Reports, 7, 759–767. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2020.05.003

Drum, C. (1980). Soil chemistry of pesticides. USA: PPG Industries Inc. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.com/scholar_lookup?title=SoilChemistry of Pesticides&publication_year=1980&author=C. Drum

Ecobichon, D. J. (2001). Pesticide use in developing countries. Toxicology, 160(1), 27–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-483X(00)00452-2

European Food Safety Authority. (2015). The 2013 European Union report on pesticide residues in food. EFSA Journal, 13(3), 4038. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4038

FAO. (2005). Control of pesticide use and Maximum Residue Limits(MRLs) of pesticides. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/waicent/faoinfo/foodsafety-quality/cd_hygiene/cnt/cnt_fr/sec_3/docs_3.1/Pesticide Use & MRLs.pdf

GEMS/Food & Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues. (1997). Guidelines for predicting dietary intake of pesticide residues (revised). Switzerland: World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/pesticides/en/

Hartini, E. (2014). Kontaminasi residu pestisida dalam buah melon (Studi kasus pada petani di Kecamatan Penawangan). Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat, 10(1), 96–102. Retrieved from https://journal.unnes.ac.id/nju/index.php/kemas/article/view/3075

Hlihor, R.-M., Pogăcean, M. O., Rosca, M., Cozma, P., & Gavrilescu, M. (2019). Modelling the behavior of pesticide residues in tomatoes and their associated long-term exposure risks. Journal of Environmental Management, 233, 523–529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.11.045

Juraske, R., Mutel, C. L., Stoessel, F., & Hellweg, S. (2009). Life cycle human toxicity assessment of pesticides: Comparing fruit and vegetable diets in Switzerland and the United States. Chemosphere, 77(7), 939–945. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.08.006

Kariathi, V., Kassim, N., & Kimanya, M. (2017). Risk of exposures of pesticide residues from tomato in Tanzania. African Journal of Food Science, 11(8), 255–262. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJFS2016.1527

Karunamoorthi, K., Mohammed, M., & Wassie, F. (2012). Knowledge and practices of farmers with reference to pesticide management: Implications on human health. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, 67(2), 109–116. https://doi.org/10.1080/19338244.2011.598891

Kaur, R., Mavi, G. K., & Raghav, S. (2019). Pesticides classification and its impact on environment. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 8(3), 1889–1897. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2019.803.224

Keikotlhaile, B. M., Spanoghe, P., & Steurbaut, W. (2010). Effects of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: A meta-analysis approach. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(1), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.10.031

Kementerian Pertanian. (2015). Peraturan Menteri Pertanian tentang pendaftaran pestisida. Indonesia. Retrieved from http://perundangan.pertanian.go.id/admin/file/Permentan 39-2015 Pendaftaran Pestisida.pdf

Kementerian Pertanian. (2016). Peraturan Menteri Pertanian tentang pengawasan keamanan pangan terhadap pemasukan pangan segar asal tumbuhan. Indonesia. Retrieved from https://paralegal.id/peraturan/peraturan-menteripertanian-nomor-55-permentan-kr-040-11-2016/

Kim, K.-H., Kabir, E., & Jahan, S. A. (2017). Exposure to pesticides and the associated human health effects. Science of The Total Environment, 575, 525–535. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.009

Kiwango, P. A., Kassim, N., & Kimanya, M. E. (2018). Pesticide residues in vegetables: Practical interventions to minimize the risk of human exposure in Tanzania. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 26(1), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.9734/CJAST/2018/38976

Koleva, N. G., & Schneider, U. A. (2009). The impact of climate change on the external cost of pesticide applications in US agriculture. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 7(3), 203–216. https://doi.org/10.3763/ijas.2009.0459

Miskiyah, & Munarso, S. J. (2009). Kontaminasi residu pestisida pada cabai merah, selada, dan bawang merah (Studi kasus di Bandungan dan Brebes Jawa Tengah serta Cianjur Jawa Barat). Jurnal Hortikultura, 19(1), 101–111. Retrieved from http://ejurnal.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/jhort/article/view/780

Nacorda, E. R., Vasquez, P. P. G., Lador, R. P., & MoraGarcia, C. (2019). Assessment of agrochemical use among rice field farmers in municipalities surrounding Lake Mainit, Philippines. International Journal of Development and Sustainability, 8(9), 633-644. Retrieved from https://isdsnet.com/ijds-v8n9-09.pdf

Norton, G., Sanchez, G., Clarke-Harris, D., & Traoré, H. K. (2003). Food safety in food security and food trade case study: Reducing pesticide residues on horticultural crops. Washington, DC. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5055680_Case_study_reducing_pesticide_residues_on_horticultural_crops

Pan, Y., Ren, Y., & Luning, P. A. (2021). Factors influencing Chinese farmers’ proper pesticide application in agricultural products – A review. Food Control, 122, 107788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107788

Pemerintah Pusat. (2004). Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) tentang keamanan, mutu dan gizi pangan. Indonesia. Retrieved from http://perundangan.pertanian.go.id/admin/p_pemerintah/PP-28-04.pdf

Pemerintah Pusat. (2012). Undang-undang (UU) tentang Pangan. Indonesia. Retrieved from https://peraturan.bpk.go.id/Home/Details/39100

Pemerintah Pusat. (2019). Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) tentang Keamanan pangan. Indonesia. Retrieved from https://peraturan.bpk.go.id/Home/Details/129230/pp-no-86-tahun-2019

Popp, J., Pető, K., & Nagy, J. (2013). Pesticide productivity and food security, A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 33(1), 243–255. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-012-0105-x

Putri, G. G., Sunarti, & Suhartini. (2016). Ketinggian lokasi dan residu pestisida pada tomat: Studi di Kota Batu dan Kabupaten Tulungagung. Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat, 32(5), 157-164. https://doi.org/10.22146/bkm.6922

Reigart, J. R. (1999). Recognition and management of pesticide poisonings. USA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.id/books?id=RIUqzgEACAAJ&dq=Recognition+and+Management+of+Pesticide+Poisonings&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiiy_7d8LvAhUwIbcAHbcKDWoQ6AEwA3oECAIQAQ

Roberts, J. R., & Karr, C. J. (2012). Pesticide exposure in children. Pediatrics, 130(6), e1765–e1788. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-2758

Rosita, G., Donatella, F., & Cinzia, N. (2016). Accumulation of damage due to lifelong exposure to environmental pollution as dietary target in aging. In M. Malavolta & E. Mocchegiani (Eds.), Molecular Basis of Nutrition and Aging (pp. 177–188). San Diego: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-801816-3.00013-3

Sapbamrer, R., & Hongsibsong, S. (2014). Organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables from farms, markets, and a supermarket around Kwan Phayao Lake of Northern Thailand. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 67(1), 60–67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-014-0014-x

Schreinemachers, P., Chen, H., Nguyen, T. T. L., Buntong, B., Bouapao, L., Gautam, S., … Srinivasan, R. (2017). Too much to handle? Pesticide dependence of smallholder vegetable farmers in Southeast Asia. Science of The Total Environment, 593–594, 470–477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.181

Shattuck, A. (2019). Risky subjects: Embodiment and partial knowledges in the safe use of pesticide. Geoforum. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.04.029

Sudarmo, S. (1991). Pestisida. Yogyakarta: Kanisius. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=id&as_sdt=0,5&cluster=6515394352539694684

USDA Agricultural Marketing Service. (2019). Pesticide data program annual summary reports. Retrieved from https://www.ams.usda.gov/reports/pdp-annual-summary-reports

Veres, A., Wyckhuys, K. A. G., Kiss, J., Tóth, F., Burgio, G., Pons, X., … Furlan, L. (2020). An update of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) on systemic pesticides. Part 4: Alternatives in major cropping systems. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(24), 29867–29899. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09279-x

Yadav, I. C., Devi, N. L., Syed, J. H., Cheng, Z., Li, J., Zhang, G., & Jones, K. C. (2015). Current status of persistent organic pesticides residues in air, water, and soil, and their possible effect on neighboring countries: A comprehensive review of India. Science of The Total Environment, 511, 123–137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.12.041

Yu, C., Li, Y., Zhang, Q., Zou, N., Gu, K., Li, X., & Pan, C. (2014). Decrease of pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin residues in stored rice with postharvest treatment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(5), 5372–5381. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110505372

Yuantari, M. G. C., Widianarko, B., & Sunoko, H. R. (2015). Analisis risiko pajanan pestisida terhadap kesehatan petani. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat, 10(2), 239-245. https://doi.org/10.15294/kemas.v10i2.3387




DOI: http://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v43i2.2570

Copyright (c) 2021 The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.