Feeding Preference and Development of Sitophilus oryzae L. on Organic and Inorganic Rice Cultivation

Ludji Pantja Astuti


This study examined the preferences and development of Sitophilus oryzae on different organic and inorganic rice varieties by free-choice and no-choice tests. Feeding preference was assessed by the male and female adult present and the percentage of weight loss. The development was assessed by the numbers of eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults, the period of eggs, larvae, and pupae, the total development time, larval growth index, growth index, and biotic potential. The free-choice test showed that the number of male and female present and the percentage of weight loss were higher on inorganic rice than on organic rice of either the Shinta Nur or IR-64 variety. The no-choice test showed that the numbers of eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults were higher on inorganic rice than on both varieties of organic rice. The period of eggs, larvae, and pupae and the total development time were shorter on inorganic rice than on organic rice. The larval growth index, growth index, and biotic potential were higher on inorganic rice than on organic varieties. Organic rice had high levels of phenolic, amylose, and carbohydrates, but smaller seed size and lower protein levels and ash was preferred less compared with inorganic rice of both varieties.


Biotic potential; Growth index; Larvae growth index; Preference; Stored product pest

Full Text:



Adam, B. D., Phillips, T. W., & Flinn, P. W. (2006). The economics of IPM in stored grain: Why don’t more grain handlers use IPM? In I. Lorini, B. Bacaltchuk, H. Beckel, D. Deckers, E. Sundfeld, J. P. dos Santos, … V. M. Scussel (Eds.), 9th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection (pp. 3–12). Campinas, Brazil: Brazilian Post-harvest Association. Retrieved from http://storedgrain.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/9th-Proceedings-IWCSPPContents.pdf

Akhter, M., Sultana, S., Akter, T., & Begum, S. (2018). Oviposition preference and development of rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Lin.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in different stored grains. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 45(2), 131–138. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjz.v45i2.35708

Antunes, C., Mendes, R., Lima, A., Barros, G., Fields, P., Da Costa, L. B., … Carvalho, M. O. (2016). Resistance of rice varieties to the storedproduct insect, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 109(1), 445–453. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tov260

Astuti, L. P., Mudjiono, G., Rasminah, S., & Rahardjo, B. T. (2013a). Influence of temperature and humidity on the population growth of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) on milled rice. Journal of Entomology, 10(2), 86–94. https://doi.org/10.3923/je.2013.86.94

Astuti, L. P., Mudjiono, G., Rasminah, S., & Rahardjo, B. T. (2013b). Susceptibility of milled rice varieties to the lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica, F). Journal of Agricultural Science, 5(2), 145–149. https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v5n2p145

Athanassiou, C. G., Kavallieratos, N. G., Chintzoglou, G. J., Peteinatos, G. G., Boukouvala, M. C., Petrou, S. S., & Panoussakis, E. C. (2008). Effect of temperature and commodity on insecticidal efficacy of spinosad dust against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 101(3), 976–981. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/101.3.976

Athié, I., & de Paulo, D. C. (2002). Insetos de grãos armazenados: aspectos biológicos e identificação (2nd ed.). Sao Paulo: Varela. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.id/books?id=OXVUAAAACAAJ

Bagchi, T. B., Ghosh, A., Kumar, U., Chattopadhyay, K., Sanghamitra, P., Ray, S., … Sharma, S. (2016). Comparison of nutritional and physicochemical quality of rice under organic and standard production systems. Cereal Chemistry, 93(5), 435–443. https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-01-16-0001-R

Barbhuiya, M., & Kar, D. (2002). Biology of rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae Linn. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in stored wheat Triticum vulgare and its control. Environment and Ecology, 20(3), 700–702. Retrieved from https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/50578ca8e4b01ad7e02824a1

Buzby, J. C., Wells, H. F., & Hyman, J. (2014). The estimated amount, value, and calories of postharvest food losses at the retail and consumer levels in the United States. Economic Information Bulletin Number 121. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2501659

da Silva Costa, D. C., de Sousa Almeida, A. C., da Silva Araújo, M., Heinrichs, E. A., Lacerda, M. C., Barrigossi, J. A. F., & de Jesus, F. G. (2016). Resistance of rice varieties to Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Florida Entomologist, 99(4), 769-773. https://doi.org/10.1653/024.099.0432

Demissie, G., Swaminathan, R., Ameta, O. P., Jain, H. K., & Saharan, V. (2015). Biochemical basis of resistance in different varieties of maize for their relative susceptibility to Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Journal of Stored Product and Postharvest Research, 6(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.5897/JSPPR2013.0167

Devi, S. R., Thomas, A., Rebijith, K. B., & Ramamurthy, V. V. (2017). Biology, morphology and molecular characterization of Sitophilus oryzae and S. zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 73, 135–141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2017.08.004

Din, N., Ashraf, M., Hussain, S., Iqbal, Z., & Hussain, D. (2018). Feeding preference and biology of Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in different wheat varieties. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 6(3), 147–150. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/5283/9bde72aae7b402b97b1d71249077774ec2e6.pdf

Gangmei, T, P., & George, P, J. (2017). Black rice CV. “Chakhao Amubi” (Oryza sativa L.) Response to organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on growth, yield and grain protein content. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 6(4), 550–555. Retrieved from http://www.phytojournal.com/archives/2017/vol6issue4/PartH/6-4-100-574.pdf

Gharieb, A. S., Metwally, T. F., Abou-Khadrah, S. H., Glela, A. A., & El Sabagh, A. (2017). Quality of rice grain is influenced by organic and inorganic sources of nutrients and antioxidant application. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova, 49(4), 57–68. https://doi.org/10.1515/cerce-2016-0036

Hagstrum, D. W., Flinn, P. W., & Howard, R. W. (1995). Ecology. In B. Subramanyam & D. W. Hagstrum (Eds.), Integrated management of insects in stored products (pp. 71–134). Madison Avenue, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.id/books?id=jQlzPiKWyhoC&pg=PA71&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=4#v=onepage&q&f=false

Howe, R. W. (1971). A parameter for experssing the suitability of an environment for insect development. Journal of Stored Products Research, 7(1), 63–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-474X(71)90039-7

Ingver, A., Tamm, I., & Tamm, Ü. (2008). Effect of organic and conventional production on yield and the quality of spring cereals. Agronomijas Vestis (Latvian Journal of Agronomy), 11, 61–67. Retrieved from https://llufb.llu.lv/conference/agrvestis/content/n11/AgrVestis-Nr11-61-67.pdf

Itoyama, K., Kawahira, Y., Murata, M., & Tojo, S. (1999). Fluctuations of some characteristics in the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared under different diets. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 34(3), 315–321. https://doi.org/10.1303/aez.34.315

Jennings, P. R., Coffman, W. R., & Kauffman, H. E. (1979). Rice improvement. Los Banos, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute. Retrieved from http://books.irri.org/9711040034_content.pdf

Khan, H. R., & Halder, P. K. (2012). Susceptibility of six varieties of rice to the infestation of rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Dhaka University Journal of Biological Sciences, 21(2), 163–168. https://doi.org/10.3329/dujbs.v21i2.11514

Kumawat, K. C. (2007). Effect of abiotic factors on biology of Rhyzopertha dominica (fab.) on wheat. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 15(1), 111-115. Retrieved from http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&volume=15&issue=1&article=025

Mansoor-ul-Hasan, Aslam, A., Jafir, M., Javed, M. W., Shehzad, M., Chaudhary, M. Z., & Aftab, M. (2017). Effect of temperature and relative humidity on development of Sitophilus oryzae L. (coleoptera: curculionidae). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 5(6), 85–90. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320729966_Effect_of_temperature_and_relative_humidity_on_development_of_Sitophilus_oryzae_L_coleoptera_curculionidae

Nadeem, S., Hamed, M., & Shafique, M. (2011). Feeding preference and developmental period of some storage insect species in rice products. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 43(1), 79–83. Retrieved from http://zsp.com.pk/79-83 (13)PJZ-160-09.pdf

Paule, C. M., Gomez, K. A., Juliano, B. O., & Coffman, W. R. (1979). Variability in amylose content of rice. Rivista Il Riso, 28(1), 15–22. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276060345_Variability_in_Amylose_Content_of_Rice

Phillips, T. W., & Throne, J. E. (2010). Biorational approaches to managing stored-product insects. Annual Review of Entomology, 55, 375–397. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.54.110807.090451

Pretorius, L. M. (1976). Laboratory studies on the development and reproductive performance of Heliothis armigera (Hubn.) on various food plants. Journal of the Entomological Society of South Africa, 39(2), 337–343. Retrieved from http://eprints.icrisat.ac.in/8002/

Rossetto, C. J. (1969). O complexo de Sitophilus spp (Coleoptera curculionidae) no Estado de São Paulo. Bragantia, 28, 127–148. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0006-87051969000100010

Shafique, M., Ahmad, M., & Chaudry, M. A. (2006). Feeding preference and development of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) in wheat products. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 38(1), 27–31. Retrieved from http://zsp.com.pk/pdf38/27-31 _6_.pdf

Shires, S. W. (1979). Influence of temperature and humidity on survival, development period and adult sex ratio in Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 15(1), 5–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-474X(79)90018-3

Steel, R. G. D., & Torrie, J. H. (1980). Principles and procedures of statistics a biometrical approach (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Stejskal, V., Kučerová, Z., & Lukáš, J. (2004). Evidence and symptoms of pasta infestation by Sitophilus oryzae (Curculionidae; Coleoptera) in the Czech Republic. Plant Protection Science, 40, 107–111. https://doi.org/10.17221/971-pps

Su, L., Adam, B. D., Arthur, F. H., Lusk, J. L., & Meullenet, J. F. (2019). The economic effects of Rhyzopertha dominica on rice quality: Objective and subjective measures. Journal of Stored Products Research, 84, 101505. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2019.08.002

Trematerra, P. (2009). Preferences of Sitophilus zeamais to different types of Italian commercial rice and cereal pasta. Bulletin of Insectology, 62(1), 103–106. Retrieved from http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/pdfarticles/vol62-2009-103-106trematerra.pdf

Trematerra, P., Valente, A., Athanassiou, C. G., & Kavallieratos, N. G. (2007). Kernel-kernel interactions and behavioral responses of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 42(1), 129–135. https://doi.org/10.1303/aez.2007.129

Yadu, Y. K., Saxena, R. C., & Dubey, V. K. (2000). Relative susceptibility of different varieties of maize to infestation by the Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) as influenced by the biochemical content of the grains. Indian Journal Of Agricultural Research, 34, 243–246. Retrieved from https://arccjournals.com/journal/indian-journal-ofagricultural-research/ARCC3154

DOI: http://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v41i3.2362

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.