Determination of Agronomical Characters as the Resistance Attributes of Twenty Soybean Varieties to Stink Bug (Nezara viridula L.)

Heru Kuswantoro, I Made Jana Mejaya, Yuliantoro Baliadi


The research was conducted to study the agronomical characters as the resistance attributes of twenty soybean varieties to Nezara viridula. The results showed that the twenty soybean varieties had a different response to stink bug infestation. Gepak Kuning, Seulawah, and Sinabung were resistant to stink bug, while Argomulyo were highly susceptible, and Grobogan and Malabar were susceptible. Besides resistance to stink bug, Sinabung also had the highest seed yield (2.95 t/ha). The seed yield of Gepak Kuning and Seulawah were not high, i.e. 2.20 and 1.82 t/ha respectively. The three highly susceptible or susceptible varieties also showed the lowest seed yield, i.e. 0.68 t/ha (Argomulyo), 0.42 t/ha (Grobogan) and 0.99 t/ha (Malabar). The negative correlation was shown between resistance to pest with days to maturity, duration of the reproductive phase, the number of unfilled pods, and weight of 100 seeds. Seed yield also had a negative correlation with duration of reproductive phase and weight of 100 seeds. It indicated that varieties with short duration of reproductive phase and small seed size were preferred by Nezara viridula as food sources. Therefore, these two characters can be used to determine the soybean resistance to Nezara viridula.


Nezara viridula; Resistance; Soybean

Full Text:



Balitkabi. (2016). Deskripsi varietas unggul kedelai 1986-2016. Malang, ID: Balai Penelitian Tanaman Aneka Kacang dan Umbi. Retrieved from PDF

Biswas, G. (2013). Insect pests of soybean (Glycine max L.), their nature of damage and succession with the crop stages. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Science, 39(1), 1–8. DOI

Boethel, D. J., Russin, J. S., Wier, A. T., Layton, M. B., Mink, J. S., & Boyd, M. L. (2000). Delayed maturity associated with Southern green stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) injury at various soybean phenological stages. Journal of Economic Entomology, 93(3), 707–712. DOI

Carvalho, F. P. (2017). Pesticides, environment, and food safety. Food and Energy Security, 6(2), 48–60. DOI

Chiang, H. S., & Talekar, N. S. (1980). Identification of sources of resistance to the beanfly and two other agromyzid flies in soybean and mungbean. Journal of Economic Entomology, 73(2), 197–199. DOI

Da Fonseca Santos, M., Möller, M., Clough, S. J., & Pinheiro, J. B. (2018). Heritability of agronomic traits correlated with reduced stink bug damage in an F2:3 soybean population derived from IAC-100. Journal of Crop Improvement, 32(1), 1–18. DOI

da Graça, J. P., Ueda, T. E., Janegitz, T., Vieira, S. S., Salvador, M. C., de Oliveira, M. C. N., … Hoffmann-Campo, C. B. (2016). The natural plant stress elicitor cis-jasmone causes cultivar-dependent reduction in growth of the stink bug, Euschistus heros and associated changes in flavonoid concentrations in soybean, Glycine max. Phytochemistry, 131, 84–91. DOI

Damalas, C. A., & Koutroubas, S. D. (2016). Farmers’ exposure to pesticides: Toxicity types and ways of prevention. Toxics, 4(1), 1. DOI

Daugherty, D. M., Neustadt, M. H., Gehrke, C. W., Cavanah, L. E., Williams, L. F., & Green, D. E. (1964). An evaluation of damage to soybeans by brown and green stink bugs. Journal of Economic Entomology, 57(5), 719–722. DOI

de Santana Souza, E., Lopes Baldin, E. L., da Silva, J. P. G. F., & Lourenção, A. L. (2013). Feeding preference of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and attractiveness of soybean genotypes. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 73(4), 351–357. DOI

Depieri, R. A., & Panizzi, A. R. (2011). Duration of feeding and superficial and in-depth damage to soybean seed by selected species of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Neotropical Entomology, 40(2), 197–203. DOI

Ederli, L., Brunetti, C., Centritto, M., Colazza, S., Frati, F., Loreto, F., … Pasqualini, S. (2017). Infestation of broad bean (Vicia faba) by the green stink bug (Nezara viridula) decreases shoot abscisic acid contents under well-watered and drought conditions. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8, 959. DOI

Egli, D. B., & Bruening, W. P. (2007). Nitrogen accumulation and redistribution in soybean genotypes with variation in seed protein concentration. Plant and Soil, 301, 165–172. DOI

Endo, N. (2016). Effective monitoring of the population dynamics of Nezara viridula and Nezara antennata (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) using a light trap in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 51, 341–346. DOI

Giacometti, R., Ilina, N., Eduardo, P. A., & Zavala, J. A. (2018). Stink bug Nezara viridula sustains late MAPKs phosphorylation status and induces expression of genes related with cell wall rearrangement in developing soybean seeds. Arthropod-Plant Interactions, 12(4), 531–541. DOI

Gordon, T. L., Haseeb, M., Kanga, L. H. B., & Legaspi, J. C. (2017). Potential of three trap crops in managing Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on tomatoes in Florida. Journal of Economic Entomology, 110(6), 2478–2482. DOI

Herbert, J. J., & Toews, M. D. (2012). Seasonal abundance and population structure of Chinavia hilaris and Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Georgia farmscapes containing corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 105(4), 582–591. DOI

Hobbs, H. A., Hill, C. B., Grau, C. R., Koval, N. C., Wang, Y., Pedersen, W. L., … Hartman, G. L. (2006). Green stem disorder of soybean. Plant Disease, 90(4), 513–518. DOI

Kamminga, K. L., Koppel, A. L., Herbert Jr., D. A., & Kuhar, T. P. (2012). Biology and management of the green stink bug. Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 3(3), C1–C8. DOI

Kuswantoro, H. (2017). Genetic variability and heritability of acid-adaptive soybean promising lines. Biodiversitas, 18(1), 378–382. DOI

Kuswantoro, H., Hapsari, R. T., Sulistyo, A., & Supeno, A. (2017). Potential yield of tidal swamp-adaptive soybean promising lines. Legume Research-An International Journal, 40(3), 514–519. DOI

Lomate, P. R., & Bonning, B. C. (2016). Distinct properties of proteases and nucleases in the gut, salivary gland and saliva of southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula. Scientific Reports, 6, 27587. DOI

McPherson, R. M., Todd, J. W., & Yeargan, K. V. (1994). Stink bugs. In L. G. Higley & D. J. Boethel (Eds.), Handbook of soybean insect pests (pp. 87-90). Lanham, MD: Entomological Society of America.

Molina, G. A. R., & Trumper, E. V. (2012). Selection of soybean pods by the stink bugs, Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii. Journal of Insect Science, 12(1), 104. DOI

Naranjo, S. E., Ellsworth, P. C., & Frisvold, G. B. (2015). Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems. Annual Review of Entomology, 60, 621–645. DOI

Nicolopoulou-Stamati, P., Maipas, S., Kotampasi, C., Stamatis, P., & Hens, L. (2016). Chemical pesticides and human health: The urgent need for a new concept in agriculture. Frontiers in Public Health, 4, 148. DOI

Nomayanja, A., Tukamuhubwa, P., & Kyamanywa, S. (2000). Screening soybean (Glycine max(L) Merril) lines for morphological resistance to the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5(2), 22–24. Retrieved from website

Oliveira, É. D. M., & Panizzi, A. R. (2003). Performance of nymphs and adults of Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on soybean pods at different developmental stages. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 46(2), 187–192. DOI

Olson, D. M., Ruberson, J. R., & Andow, D. A. (2016). Relative longevity of adult Nezara viridula in field cages of cotton, peanut, and soybean. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 159(1), 30–36. DOI

Olson, D. M., Prescott, K. K., Zeilinger, A. R., Hou, S., Coffin, A. W., Smith, C. M., … Andow, D. A. (2018). Landscape effects on reproduction of Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), a mobile, polyphagous, multivoltine arthropod herbivore. Environmental Entomology, 47(3), 660–668. DOI

Piubelli, G. C., Hoffmann-Campo, C. B., De Arruda, I. C., Franchini, J. C., & Lara, F. M. (2003). Flavonoid increase in soybean as a response to Nezara viridula injury and its effect on insect-feeding preference. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 29(5), 1223–1233. DOI

Scheirs, J., Jordaens, K., & De Bruyn, L. (2005). Have genetic trade-offs in host use been overlooked in arthropods? Evolutionary Ecology, 19(6), 551–561. DOI

Schoonhoven, L. M., van Loon, J. J. A., & Dicke, M. (2005). Insetc-plant biology (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from PDF

Silva, F. A. C., da Silva, J. J., Depieri, R. A., & Panizzi, A. R. (2012). Feeding activity, salivary amylase activity, and superficial damage to soybean seed by adult Edessa meditabunda (F.) and Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Neotropical Entomology, 41(5), 386–390. DOI

Silva, J. P. G. F., Baldin, E. L. L., Canassa, V. F., Souza, E. S., & Lourenção, A. L. (2014). Assessing antixenosis of soybean entries against Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Arthropod-Plant Interactions, 8, 349–359. DOI

Smith, C. M. (2005). Plant resistance to arthropods: Molecular and conventional approaches. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. DOI

Snodgrass, G. L., & Scott, W. P. (2003). Effect of ULV malathion use in boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) eradication on resistance in the tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 96(3), 902–908. DOI

Sosa‐Gómez, D.R., Corrêa‐Ferreira, B. S. Kraemer, B., Pasini, A., Husch, P. E., Vieira, C. E. D,... Lopes, I. O. N. 2019. Prevalence, damage, management and insecticide resistance of stink bug populations (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in commodity crops. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 2019. DOI

Souza, E. S., Silva, J. P. G. F., Baldin, E. L. L., Pierozzi, C. G., Cunha, L. S., Canassa, V. F., … Lourenção, A. L. (2016). Response of soybean genotypes challenged by a stink bug complex (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 109(2), 898–906. DOI

Tood, J. W., & Turnipseed, S. G. (1974). Effects of Southern green stink bug damage on yield and quality of soybeans. Journal of Economic Entomology, 67(3), 421–426. DOI

Venugopal, P. D., Coffey, P. L., Dively, G. P., & Lamp, W. O. (2014). Adjacent habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) densities and the associated damage at field corn and soybean edges. PLoS ONE, 9(10), e109917. DOI

Vyavhare, S. S., Way, M. O., & Medina, R. F. (2015). Determination of growth stage-specific response of soybean to redbanded stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and its relationship to the development of flat pods. Journal of Economic Entomology, 108(4), 1770–1778. DOI

Zavala, J. A., Mazza, C. A., Dillon, F. M., Chludil, H. D., & Ballaré, C. L. (2015). Soybean resistance to stink bugs (Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii) increases with exposure to solar UV-B radiation and correlates with isoflavonoid content in pods under field conditions. Plant, Cell and Environment, 38(5), 920–928. DOI



Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.