Potential of Wood Vinegar for Enhancing Seed Germination of Three Upland Rice Varieties by Suppressing Malondialdehyde Production

Atchima Dissatian, Jirawat Sanitchon, Paweena Pongdontri, Nuntawoot Jongrungklang, Darunee Jothityangkoon


Upland rice usually gives poor germination under rainfed upland environement. To improve the seed germination, seed priming technique was assessed in this study. Seed of three upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties (Leum Pua, ULR038 and Sakon Nakhon1, SKN) were primed with three different seed priming agents; distilled water, CaCl2 and 300-fold diluted wood vinegar. Compared to untreated dry seeds, wood vinegar improved field emergence and improved drought tolerance of the rice seeds better than other priming agents, which 50 % for Leum Pua, 20 % for ULR038 and 16% for SKN, when watering was delayed for 7 days. All three priming agents increased the field emergence percentage by similar amounts when watering was delayed for 14 days. To understand how priming helped improvement of germination, antioxidation mechanism and sugar metabolism were examined. Level of malondialdehyde was markedly reduced in all three rice varieties in response to priming, which were associated with increased activity of antioxidant enzymes, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase. Wood vinegar also accelerated amylase activity in ULR038 and SKN, but not the sugar content. The results suggest that wood vinegar is a potent priming agent for achieving rapid and uniform seed germination in upland rice.


Biochemical changes; Drought; Oryza sativa; Plant derived smoke; Seed priming

Full Text:



Abdallah, E. H., Musa, Y., Mustafa, M., Sjahril, R., & Riadi, M. (2016). Comparison between hydro and osmo-priming to determine period needed for priming indicator and its effect on germination percentage of aerobic rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.). AGRIVITA Journal of Agricultural Science, 38(3), 222–230. crossref

Aebi, H. (1984). [13] Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology, 105(C), 121–126. crossref

Ashraf, M., & Foolad, M. R. (2005). Pre-sowing seed treatment-a shotgun approach to improve germination, plant growth, and crop yield under saline and non-saline conditions. Advances in Agronomy, 88, 223–271. crossref

Beauchamp, C., & Fridovich, I. (1971). Superoxide dismutase: Improved assays and an assay applicable to acrylamide gels. Analytical Biochemistry, 44(1), 276–287. crossref

Bradford, M. M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein using the principle of protein dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72, 248–254. crossref

Chance, B., & Maehly, A. C. (1955). [136] Assay of catalases and peroxidases. Methods in Enzymology, 2(C), 764–775. crossref

Chen, K., & Arora, R. (2013). Priming memory invokes seed stress-tolerance. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 94, 33–45. crossref

Chen, K., Fessehaie, A., & Arora, R. (2012). Dehydrin metabolism is altered during seed osmopriming and subsequent germination under chilling and desiccation in Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Bloomsdale: Possible role in stress tolerance. Plant Science, 183, 27–36. crossref

Demiral, T., & Türkan, I. (2005). Comparative lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense systems and proline content in roots of two rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 53(3), 247–257. crossref

Doorenbos, J., & Pruitt, W. O. (1977). Guidelines for predicting crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper (Vol. 24). Retrieved from PDF

Ella, E. S., Dionisio-Sese, M. L., & Ismail, A. M. (2011). Seed pre-treatment in rice reduces damage, enhances carbohydrate mobilization and improves emergence and seedling establishment under flooded conditions. AoB PLANTS, 11(1), plr007. crossref

Hua-long, L., Han-jing, S., Jing-guo, W., Yang, L., De-tang, Z., & Hong-wei, Z. (2014). Effect of seed soaking with exogenous proline on seed germination of rice under salt stress. Journal of Northeast Agricultural University (English Edition), 21(3), 1–6. crossref

ISTA. (2004). International rules for seed testing. Zurich, CH: International Seed Testing Association.

Jisha, K. C., & Puthur, J. T. (2016). Seed priming with beta-amino butyric acid improves abiotic stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Rice Science, 23(5), 242–254. crossref

Kulkarni, M. G., Sparg, S. G., Light, M. E., & Van Staden, J. (2006). Stimulation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling vigour by smoke-water and butenolide. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 192(5), 395–398. crossref

Lara, T. S., Lira, J. M. S., Rodrigues, A. C., Rakocevic, M., & Alvarenga, A. A. (2014). Potassium nitrate priming affects the activity of nitrate reductase and antioxidant enzymes in tomato germination. Journal of Agricultural Science, 6(2), 72–80. crossref

McDonald, M. B. (2000). 9. Seed priming. In M. Black & J. D. Bewley (Eds.), Seed technology and its biological basis (pp. 287-325). Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press & Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press LLC.

Miller, G. L. (1959). Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Analytical Chemistry, 31(3), 426–428. crossref

Mukhtar, K., Afzal, I., Qasim, M., Maqsood, S., Basra, A., & Shahid, M. (2013). Does priming promote germination and early stand establishment of French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) seeds by inducing physiological and biochemical changes? Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus, 12(3), 13–21. Retrieved from PDF

Mungkunkamchao, T., Kesmala, T., Pimratch, S., Toomsan, B., & Jothityangkoon, D. (2013). Wood vinegar and fermented bioextracts: Natural products to enhance growth and yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Scientia Horticulturae, 154, 66–72. crossref

Nakai, T., Kartal, S. N., Hata, T., & Imamura, Y. (2007). Chemical characterization of pyrolysis liquids of wood-based composites and evaluation of their bio-efficiency. Building and Environment, 42(3), 1236–1241. crossref

Nakano, Y., & Asada, K. (1987). Purification of ascorbate peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts; Its inactivation in ascorbate-depleted medium and reactivation by monodehydroascorbate radical. Plant and Cell Physiology, 28(1), 131–140. crossref

Rehman, H., Basra, S. M. A., Farooq, M., Ahmed, N., & Afzal, I. (2011). Seed priming with CaCl 2 improves the stand establishment, yield and quality attributes in direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 13(5), 786–790. Retrieved from website

Srivong, T., Zhu, Y. J., Pongdontri, P., Pliansinchai, U., Sakuanrungsirikul, S., Borthakur, D., … Kosittrakun, M. (2015). Optimization of callus induction and plant regeneration in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for a study of sucrose accumulation in relation to soluble acid invertase expression. Chiang Mai Journal of Science, 42(4), 797–805. Retrieved from website

Varier, A., Vari, A. K., & Dadlani, M. (2010). The subcellular basis of seed priming. Current Science, 99(4), 450–456. crossref

Zhai, M., Shi, G., Wang, Y., Mao, G., Wang, D., & Wang, Z. (2015). Chemical compositions and biological activities of pyroligneous acids from walnut shell. BioResources, 10(1), 1715–1729. Retrieved from website

Zhou, Z., Robards, K., Helliwell, S., & Blanchard, C. (2002). Ageing of stored rice: Changes in chemical and physical attributes. Journal of Cereal Science, 35(1), 65–78. crossref

DOI: http://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v40i2.1332


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.