Determination of Endophytic Fungi as Induce Resistance Agent of Chilli Pepper Against Pepper Yellow Leaf Curl Disease

Susanti Mugi Lestari, Sri Hendrastuti Hidayat, Widodo Widodo


Pepper yellow leaf curl disease caused by Pepper yellow leaf curl virus becomes a major problem on chilli pepper in Indonesia since 2000. Endophytic fungi has the potency to suppress plant diseases by acting as induced resistant agent. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of endophytic fungi application on incidence of yellow leaf curl disease of chilli pepper. Four isolates of endophytic fungi, i.e. Cercospora nicotianae isolate H5, Curvularia sp. isolate H12, Fusarium sp. isolate AC-2.7 and AC-4.5 were applied as seed treatment and leaf spray on 2 chilli varieties, ‘Biola’ and ‘Luwes’. Observations of incubation period showed that delayed symptom occurred on application of Fusarium sp. isolate AC-2.7 and Curvularia sp. isolate H12. Disease incidence reached 100 % in all treatments. Less severe symptom was observed on application of Curvularia sp. isolate H12. Most plants infected by PYLCIV showed obvious symptoms of yellow mosaic, leaf curling and stunting. Plant productivity analysis showed that application of Fusarium sp. isolate AC-2.7 resulted higher fruit weight and this treatment may induce tolerant response of the plants to PYLCIV infection. Initial effort to evaluate endophytic fungi as biocontrol agents for pepper yellow leaf curl disease should be studied further.


Cercospora nicotianae; Curvularia sp.; Endophytic fungi; Fusarium sp.; Pepper yellow leaf curl virus

Full Text:



Achatz, B., Kogel, K.-H., Franken, P., & Waller, F. (2010). Piriformospora indica mycorrhization increases grain yield by accelerating early development of barley plants. Plant Signaling and Behavior, 5(12), 1685–1687.

Biswas, C., Dey, P., Satpathy, S., & Satya, P. (2012). Establishment of the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana as a season long endophyte in jute (Corchorus olitorius) and its rapid detection using SCAR marker. BioControl, 57(4), 565–571.

Busby, P. E., Zimmerman, N., Weston, D. J., Jawdy, S. S., Houbraken, J., & Newcombe, G. (2013). Leaf endophytes and Populus genotype affect severity of damage from the necrotrophic leaf pathogen, Drepanopeziza populi. Ecosphere, 4(10), 125.

Crawford, K. M., Land, J. M., & Rudgers, J. A. (2010). Fungal endophytes of native grasses decrease insect herbivore preference and performance. Oecologia, 164(2), 431–444.

Fakhro, A., Andrade-Linares, D. R., von Bargen, S., Bandte, M., Büttner, C., Grosch, R., ... Franken P. (2010). Impact of Piriformospora indica on tomato growth and on interaction with fungal and viral pathogens. Mycorrhiza, 20(3), 191–200.

González-Teuber, M., Jiménez-Alemán, G. H., & Boland, W. (2014). Foliar endophytic fungi as potential protectors from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants. Communicative and Integrative Biology, 7(5), e970500.

Hardoim, P. R., van Overbeek, L. S., Berg, G., Pirttilä, A. M., Compant, S., Campisano, A., … Sessitsch, A. (2015). The hidden world within plants: Ecological and evolutionary considerations for defining functioning of microbial endophytes. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 79(3), 293–320.

Hipper, C., Brault, V., Ziegler-Graff, V., & Revers, F. (2013). Viral and cellular factors involved in phloem transport of plant viruses. Frontiers in Plant Science, 4, 1–24.

Hull, R. (2014). Plant virology (5th ed.). Waltham, MA: Academic Press.

Jaber, L. R., & Salem, N. M. (2014). Endophytic colonisation of squash by the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) for managing Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in cucurbits. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 24(10), 1096–1109.

Jalgaonwala, R. E., Mohite, B. V., & Mahajan, R. T. (2011). A review: Natural products from plant associated endophytic fungi. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research, 1(2), 21–32. Retrieved from

Kazenel, M. R., Debban, C. L., Ranelli, L., Hendricks, W. Q., Chung, Y. A., Pendergast, T. H., … Rudgers, J. A. (2015). A mutualistic endophyte alters the niche dimensions of its host plant. AoB PLANTS, 7(1), plv005.

Khastini, R. O., Ogawara, T., Sato, Y., & Narisawa, K. (2014). Control of Fusarium wilt in melon by the fungal endophyte, Cadophora sp. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 139(2), 333–342.

Lugtenberg, B. J. J., Caradus, J. R., & Johnson, L. J. (2016). Fungal endophytes for sustainable crop production. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 92(12), fiw194.

Moricca, S., & Ragazzi, A. (2008). Fungal endophytes in Mediterranean oak forests: A lesson from Discula quercina. Phytopathology, 98(4), 380–386.

Nurulita, S., Hidayat, S.H., Mutaqin, K.M., & Thomas, J. 2015. Molecular characterization of Begomovirus infecting yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis L.) in Java, Indonesia. Biotropia, 22(1), 53-60. doi: 10.11598/btb.2015.22.1.401

Polston, J. E., & Capobianco, H. (2013). Transmitting plant viruses using whiteflies. Journal of Visualized Experiments, 81, e4332.

Pongcharoen, W., Rukachaisirikul, V., Phongpaichit, S., Kühn, T., Pelzing, M., Sakayaroj, J., & Taylor, W. C. (2008). Metabolites from the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp. PSU-D14. Phytochemistry, 69(9), 1900–1902.

Rodriguez, R. J., White, J. F., Arnold, A. E., & Redman, R. S. (2009). Fungal endophytes: Diversity and functional roles. The New Phytologist, 182(2), 314–330.

Rodríguez-López, M. J., Garzo, E., Bonani, J. P., Fereres, A., Fernández-Muñoz, R., & Moriones, E. (2011). Whitefly resistance traits derived from the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium affect the preference and feeding behavior of Bemisia tabaci and reduce the spread of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus. Phytopathology, 101(10), 1191-201.

Rúa, M. A., Mcculley, R. L., & Mitchell, C. E. (2013). Fungal endophyte infection and host genetic background jointly modulate host response to an aphid-transmitted viral pathogen. Journal of Ecology, 101(4), 1007–1018.

Sharma, P., Gaur, R., & Ikegami, M. (2010). Emerging Geminiviral Disease and their Management. New York, US: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Yadava, P., Suyal, G., & Mukherjee, S. K. (2010). Begomovirus DNA replication and pathogenicity. Current Science, 98(3), 360–368. Retrieved from

Yan, X.-N., Sikora, R. A., & Zheng, J.-W. (2011). Potential use of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) endophytic fungi as seed treatment agents against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B, 12(3), 219–225.

Yu, H.-S., Zhang, L., Li, L., Zheng, C.-J., Guo, L., Li, W.-C., … Qin, L.-P. (2010). Recent developments and future prospects of antimicrobial metabolites produced by endophytes. Microbiological Research, 165(6), 437–449.

Zhou, L., Zhao, J., Xu, L., Huang, Y., Ma, Z., Wang, J., & Jiang, W. (2009). Antimicrobial compounds produced by plant endophytic fungi. In P. De Costa & P. Bezerra (Eds.), Fungicides (pp. 91-118). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.