A Study of the Efficacy of Various Nutrient Sources on the Growth and Yield of Cabbage

Moch. Dawam Maghfoer, Koesriharti Koesriharti, Titiek Islami, N. D. S. Kanwal


Research evaluated various nitrogen sources, and a supplementary foliar fertilizer or biochar on cabbage. It was conducted from July to October 2014 in Poncokusumo, Malang ca. 600 meters above sea level. The experiment used a randomized block design with four replications. The treatments were fertilized with different concentrations of urea, goat manure and selected substances i.e. 100% N urea (controls); 75% N urea + 25% N goat manure; 50% N urea + 50% N goat manure; 75% N urea + 25% N goat manure + foliar fertilizer (6-30-30), 50% N urea + 50% N goat manure + foliar fertilizer (6-30-30); 75% N urea + 25% N manure + biochar; and 50% N urea + 50% N goat manure + biochar. The dose of N fertilizer used was 69 kg ha-1. The results showed that a higher yield was recorded in the application of 75% N urea + 25% N goat manure and 50% N urea + 50% N manure with an addition of foliar fertilizer that was not significant with the application of 75% N urea + 25% N goat manure with the addition of biochar, resulting in a marketable yield of 68.84, 66.5 and 64.75 t ha-1, respectively.


Biochar; Cabbage; Foliar fertilizer; Manure

Full Text:



Adiyoga, W., Ameriana, M., Suherman, R., Soetiarso, T. A., Jaya, B., Udiarto, B. K. ... Mussadad, D. (2004). Laporan akhir: Profil komoditas kubis [Final report: Commodities profile of cabbage]. Lembang, ID: Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran. Retrieved from https://www.scribd.com/doc/15249569/Profil-komoditas-kubis

Buckman, H. O., & Brady, N. C. (1982). Ilmu tanah [Soil science]. Jakarta, ID: Bharata Karya Aksara.

Carter, S., Shackley, S., Sohi, S., Suy, T., & Haefele, S. (2013). The impact of biochar application on soil properties and plant growth of pot grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and cabbage (Brassica chinensis). Agronomy, 3(2), 404–418. http://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy3020404

Chatterjee, R. (2008). Production of vermicompost from vegetable wastes and its effect on integrated nutrient management of vegetable production (Doctoral Thesis). Retrieved from http://krishikosh.egranth.ac.in/bitstream/1/5810029713/1/Ranjit%20Chatterjee-PhD.pdf

Chatterjee, R. (2010). Physiological attributes of cabbage (Brassica Oleracea) as influenced by different sources of nutrients under Eastern Himalayan Region. Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 1(4), 318-321. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265889576_Physiological_Attributes_of_Cabbage_Brassica_Oleracea_as_Influenced_by_Different_Sources_of_Nutrients_under_Eastern_Himalayan_Region

Chatterjee, R., & Paul, P. K. (2014). Studies on storage behavior of cabbage head as influenced by organic amendments and inorganic fertilizers. International Journal of Agricultural, Biosystems Science and Engineering, 8(1), 50-53. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261705444_Studies_on_Storage_Behavior_of_Cabbage_Head_as_Influenced_by_Organic_Amendments_and_Inorganic_Fertilizers

Chatterjee, R., Bandhopadhyay, S., & Jana, J. C. (2014). Organic amandements influencing growth, head yield and nitrogen use efficiency in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.). American International Journal of Research in Formal, Applied & Natural Sciences, 5(1), 90–95. Retrieved from http://iasir.net/AIJRFANSpapers/AIJRFANS14-153.pdf

Chaudhary, M. M., Bhanvadia, A. S., & Parmar, P. N. (2015). Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth, yield attributes and yield of cabbage (Brassica oleracea Var. Capitata L.) under middle Gujarat conditions. Trends in Biosciences, 8(8), 2164–2168. Retrieved from http://indianjournals.com/IJOR.ASPX?target=ijor:tbs&volume=8&issue=8&article=053

Chen, J.-H. (2006). The combined use of chemical and organic fertilizers and/or biofertilizer for crop growth and soil fertility. Taipei: Food and Fertilizer Technology Center. Retrieved from http://www.fftc.agnet.org/htmlarea_file/library/20110808103954/tb174.pdf

Dalal, V. V., Bharadiya, P. S., & Aghav, V. D. (2010). Effect of organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen on growth and yield of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.). The Asian Journal of Horticulture, 5(2), 291-293. Retrieved from http://www.researchjournal.co.in/online/TAJH/TAJH%205(2)/5_A-291-293.pdf

Gani, A. (2009). Biochar penyelamat lingkungan. Warta Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Pertanian, 31(6), 15–16.

Guo, Z., He, C.-L., Ma, Y., Zhu, H., Liu, F., Wang, D., & Sun, L. (2011). Effect of different fertilization on spring cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) production and fertilizer use efficiencies. Agricultural Sciences, 2(3), 208-212. http://doi.org/10.4236/as.2011.23029

Haque, K. M. F., Jahangir, A. A., Haque, M. E., Mondal, R. K., Jahan, M. A. A., & Sarker, M. A. M. (2006). Yield and nutritional quality of cabbage as affected by nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 41(1), 41-46. Retrieved from http://journals.sfu.ca/bd/index.php/BJSIR/article/view/267

Hardjowigeno, S. (1985). Ilmu tanah [Soil science]. Jakarta, ID: Akademik Persindo.

Hasan, M. R., & Solaiman, A. H. M. (2012). Efficacy of organic and organic fertilizer on the growth of Brassica oleracea L. (Cabbage). International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 4(3), 128–138. Retrieved from http://pakacademicsearch.com/pdf-files/agr/70/128-138 2012 (Volume 4)Number 3.pdf

Hossain, M. F., Farhana, T., Raihan, Md Z., Hasan, Md S., Mia, Md M., & Rahman, M. M. (2015). Effect of different fertilization practices on the growth and yield of cabbage. Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 1(2), 182-186. http://doi.org/10.3329/ajmbr.v1i2.25610

Jasim, A. H. (2015). Effect of soil sulfur fertilizer and some foliar fertilizers on growth and yield of broccoli in saline soil. Annals of West University of Timişoara, Ser. Biology, 18(2), 123–130. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311486549_EFFECT_OF_SOIL_SULFUR_FERTILIZER_AND_SOME_FOLIAR_FERTILIZERS_ON_GROWTH_AND_YIELD_OF_BROCCOLI_IN_SALINE_SOIL

Kearney, S., Fonte, S. J., Salomon, A., Six, J., & Scow, K. M. (2012). Forty percent revenue increase by combining organic and mineral nutrient amendments in Ugandan smallholder market vegetable production. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 32(4), 831–839. http://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-012-0097-6

Khan, F., Khan, T. U., Namatullah, S., & Tajudin. (2015). Vegetative growth of cabbage in relation to sowing time, plant spacing and NPK grown under different localities of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 10(1), 24-27. Retrieved from http://www.arpnjournals.com/jabs/research_papers/rp_2015/jabs_0115_704.pdf

Kolota, E., & Osinska, M. (2001). Efficiency of foliar nutrition of field vegetables grown at different nitrogen rates. Acta Horticulturae, 563, 87–91. http://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2001.563.10

Kowaljow, E., Mazzarino, M. J., Satti, P., & Jiménez-Rodríguez, C. (2010). Organic and inorganic fertilizer effects on a degraded Patagonian rangeland. Plant and Soil, 332(1), 135–145. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-0279-4

Latuponu, H., Shiddieq, Dj., Syukur, A., & Hanudin, E. (2011). Pengaruh biochar dari limbah sagu terhadap pelindian nitrogen di lahan kering masam [The influence of sagopalm waste biochar against leaching of nitrogen in acid upland]. Agronomika Jurnal Budidaya Pertanian Berkelanjutan, 11(2), 144-155. Retrieved from https://repository.ugm.ac.id/32474/1/28._Pengaruh_Biochar_Dari_Limbah_Sagu_Terhadap_Pelindian_Nitrogen_di_Lahan_Kering_Masam.PDF

Lehmann, J., Da Silva, J. P., Steiner, C., Nehls, T., Zech, W., & Glaser, B. (2003). Nutrient availability and leaching in an archaeological Anthrosol and a Ferralsol of the Central Amazon basin: Fertilizer, manure and charcoal amendments. Plant and Soil, 249(2), 343–357. http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022833116184

Maghfoer, M. D., Soelistyono, R., & Herlina, N. (2014). GROWTH AND YIELD OF EGGPLANT (Solanum melongena L.) ON VARIOUS COMBINATIONS OF N-SOURCE AND NUMBER OF MAIN BRANCH. AGRIVITA Journal of Agricultural Science, 36(3), 285–294. https://doi.org/10.17503/Agrivita-2014-36-3-285-294

Miller, R. W., & Donahue, R. I. (1990). Soils: An introduction to soils and plant growth (6th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Ministry of Agriculture. (2013). Statistik pertanian 2013 [Agricultural statistics 2013]. Jakarta, ID: Pusat Data dan Sistem Informasi Pertanian, Kementerian Pertanian. Retrieved from http://epublikasi.setjen.pertanian.go.id/arsip-perstatistikan/160-statistik/statistik-pertanian/381-statistik-pertanian-2013

Munir, R., & Arifin, Y. (2010). Pertumbuhan dan hasil mentimun akibat pemberian pupuk kandang ayam dan Gandasil B [Growth and yield of cucumber due to application of chicken manure and Gandasil B]. Jerami, 3(2), 63-70.

Nair, A., & Lawson, V. (2016). Effect of biochar application on cabbage production. Farm Progress Reports, 2015(1), 6-7. Retrieved from http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/farmprogressreports/vol2015/iss1/69

Ng’etich, O. K., Niyokuri, A. N., Rono, J. J., Fashaho, A., & Ogweno, J. O. (2013). Effect of different rates of nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and yield of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo cv. Diamant L.) Hybrid F1 in Rwandan high altitude zone. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 5(1), 54–62. Retrieved from http://ijagcs.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/54-62.pdf

Nzanza, B., Marais, D., & Soundy, P. (2012). Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation and biochar amendment on growth and yield of tomato. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 14(6), 965–969. Retrieved from https://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/20948/Nzanza_Effect%282012%29.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Olaniyi, J. O., & Ojetayo, A. E. (2011). Effect of fertilizer types on the growth and yield of two cabbage varieties. Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 12(2), 1573–1582. Retrieved from http://m.elewa.org/JAPS/2011/12.2/5.pdf

Palm, C. A., Myers, R. J. K., & Nandwa, S. M. (1997). Organic- inorganic nutrient interaction in soil fertility replenishment. In R. J. Buresh, P. A. Sanchez & F. Calhoun (Eds.), Replenishing soil fertility in Africa (pp. 193-218). Madison, WI: Soil Science Society of America.

Pour, A. A., Moghadam, A. R. L., & Ardebili, Z. O. (2013). The effects of different levels of vermicompost on the growth and physiology of cabbage seedlings. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 4(9), 2726-2729. Retrieved from http://www.irjabs.com/files_site/paperlist/r_1061_130815165136.pdf

Rosmarkam, A., & Yuwono, N. W. (2002). Ilmu Kesuburan Tanah [Soil Fertility Science]. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.

Rostaliana, P., Prawito, P., & Turmudi, E. (2012). Pemanfaatan biochar untuk perbaikan kualitas tanah dengan indikator tanaman jagung hibrida dan padi gogo pada sistem lahan tebang dan bakar [Biochar utilization for soil quality improvement with the indicator of maize hybrids and upland rice on the farming systems of logging and burn]. Naturalis – Jurnal Penelitian Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan, 1(3), 179-188. Retrieved from http://repository.unib.ac.id/435/1/PEVI%20ROSTALIANA.pdf

Sady, W., Rozek, S., Domagała-Świsa̧tkiewicz, I., Wojciechowska, R., & Kołton, A. (2008). Effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield, NH4+ and NO3- content of white cabbage. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Hortorum Cultus, 7(2), 41–51. Retrieved from http://wydawnictwo.up.lublin.pl/acta/hortorum_cultus/2008/acta_hort_7(2)_art_05.pdf

Setyowati, N., Muktamar, Z., & Puspitasari, I. (2015). Weed based organic fertilizer to reduce application of synthetic fertilizer in mustard (Brasicca sinensis L.). Journal of Agricultural Technology, 11(8), 1677-1683. Retrieved from http://www.ijat-aatsea.com/pdf/v11_n8_15_DecemberSpecialissue/004%20-%20N.%20Setyowati%20-S1.pdf

Sridhar, K., Rajesh, V., Omprakash, S., Prathyusha, C., & Devi, K. B. S. (2014). A critical review on organic farming of vegetables. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 5(1), 216–221. Retrieved from http://www.ijabpt.com/pdf/9037-Sridhar.pdf

Twomlow, S., Rohrbach, D., Dimes, J., Rusike, J., Mupangwa, W., Ncube, B., … Mahposa, P. (2010). Micro-dosing as a pathway to Africa’s Green Revolution: Evidence from broad-scale on-farm trials. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 88(1), 3–15. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-008-9200-4

Yildirim, E., Guvenc, I., Turan, M., & Karatas, A. (2007). Effect of foliar urea application on quality, growth, mineral uptake and yield of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., var. italica). Plant Soil Environment, 53(3), 120–128. Retrieved from http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/00061.pdf

DOI: http://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v40i1.1721

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.