Effect of Water Seed Priming on Establishment of Direct Seeded Rice in Well Watered Conditions and Aerenchyma Formation under Varying Water Regimes

Quaqua Mulbah, Joseph Adjetey


The application of seed hydro-priming as a tool for managing the adverse effect of flooding on seed germination and emergence in rice was studied, along with aerenchyma formation in sections of roots for comparisons between rice subjected to flooded and non-flooded conditions during establishment. Three replicates of three hydro-priming times (0, 24 and 48 h) were used on three cultivars. Seeds were germinated in a growth chamber at 25 o C, 65 % RH, or sown in pots in a controlled temperature glasshouse for the emergence and aerenchyma studies. Aerenchyma formation in root cortical tissues was determined from microscopic images of hand-cut sections at 5 and 50 mm behind the tips of 60-70 mm long nodal roots. The results showed that hydro-priming for both 24 and 48 h significantly hastened germination and emergence. Water seed-priming increased plant height from 20 mm to 40 mm 4 days after sowing. Flooding for 7 days significantly enhanced aerenchyma formation at 50 mm behind the root tips. The results showed that hydropriming for 48 h was the best seed invigoration treatment for shortening the mean emergence time. It hopefully provides seeds an opportunity to escape from the negative effect of flooding on seedling establishment.


Emergence; Germination; Hydro-priming; Oryza sativa

Full Text:



Abdallah, E. H., Musa, Y., Mustafa, M., Sjahril, R., & Riadi, M. (2016). Comparison between hydroand osmo-priming to determine period needed for priming indicator and its effect on germination percentage of aerobic rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.). AGRIVITA Journal of Agricultural Science, 38(3), 222-230. crossref

Angaji, S. A., Septiningsih, E. M., Mackill, D. J., & Ismail, A. M. (2010). QTLs associated with tolerance of flooding during germination in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Euphytica, 172(2), 159–168. crossref

Balasubramanian, V., & Hill, J. E. (2002). Direct seeding of rice in Asia: emerging issues and strategic research needs for the 21st century. In S. Pandey, M. Mortimer, L. Wade, T. P. Tuong, K. Lopez & B. Hardy (Eds.), Direct seeding: research issues and opportunities (pp. 15- 39). Paper presented at the Proceedings of the International Workshop on Direct Seeding in Asian Rice Systems: Strategic research issues and opportunities, 25-28 January 2000, Bangkok, Thailand. Los Baños, PH: International Rice Research Institute. Retrieved from PDF

Basra, S. M. A., Farooq, M., & Khaliq, A. (2003). Comparative study of pre-sowing seed enhancement treatments in fine rice (Oryza sativa L.). Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences, 1(1), 21-25. Retrieved from PDF

Drew, M. C., He, C. J., & Morgan, P. W. (2000). Programmed cell death and aerenchyma formation in roots. Trends in Plant Science, 5(3), 123–127. crossref

Farooq, M., Basra, S. M. A., & ur-Rehman, H. (2006). Seed priming enhances emergence, yield, and quality of direct-seeded rice. International Rice Research Notes, 31(2), 42-44. Retrieved from website

Farooq, M., Siddique, K. H. M., Rehman, H., Aziz, T., Lee, D. J., & Wahid, A. (2011). Rice direct seeding: Experiences, challenges and opportunities. Soil and Tillage Research, 111(2), 87–98. crossref

Ghassemi-Golezani, K., Chadordooz-Jeddi, A., Nasrollahzadeh, S., & Moghaddam, M. (2010). Effects of hydro-priming duration on seedling vigour and grain yield of pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 38(1), 109–113. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/31216514/Effects_of_Hydro-Priming_Duration_on_Seedling_Vigour_and_Grain_Yield_of_Pinto_Bean_Phaseolus_ Vulgaris_L._Cultivars

Jackson, M. B., Fenning, T. M., & Jenkins, W. (1985). Aerenchyma (gas-space) formation in adventitious roots of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is not controlled by ethylene or small partial pressures of oxygen. Journal of Experimental Botany, 36(10), 1566– 1572. crossref

Kumar, V., & Ladha, J. K. (2011). Direct seeding of rice: Recent developments and future research needs. In D. L. Sparks (Ed.), Advances in Agronomy (1st ed., Vol. 111, pp. 297–413). San Diego, USA: Academic Press. crossref

Liu, H., Hussain, S., Zheng, M., Peng, S., Huang, J., Cui, K., & Nie, L. (2015). Dry direct-seeded rice as an alternative to transplanted-flooded rice in Central China. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 35(1), 285–294. crossref

Mackill, D. J., Ismail, A. M., Singh, U. S., Labios, R. V., & Paris, T. R. (2012). Development and rapid adoption of submergence-tolerant (Sub1) rice varieties. In D. L. Sparks (Ed.), Advances in Agronomy (1st ed., Vol. 115, pp. 299–352). San Diego, USA: Academic Press. crossref

Mahajan, G., Sarlach, R. S., Japinder, S., & Gill, M. S. (2011). Seed priming effects on germination, growth and yield of dry direct-seeded rice. Journal of Crop Improvement, 25(4), 409–417. crossref

Malik, A. I., Colmer, T. D., Lambers, H., & Schortemeyer, M. (2003). Aerenchyma formation and radial O2 loss along adventitious roots of wheat with only the apical root portion exposed to O2 deficiency. Plant, Cell and Environment, 26(10), 1713– 1722. Retrieved from PDF

Matsushima, K.-I., & Sakagami, J.-I. (2013). Effects of seed hydropriming on germination and seedling vigor during emergence of rice under different soil moisture conditions. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 4(8), 1584–1593. crossref

Naresh, R. K., Singh, S. P., & Kumar, V. (2013). Crop establishment, tillage and water management technologies on crop and water productivity in rice-wheat cropping system of North West India. International Journal of Life Sciences Biotechnology and Pharma Research, 2(3), 237–248. Retrieved from PDF

Nishiuchi, S., Yamauchi, T., Takahashi, H., Kotula, L., & Nakazono, M. (2012). Mechanisms for coping with submergence and waterlogging in rice. Rice, 5(2), 1–14. crossref

Prasad, S., Prasad, B., & Singh, R. K. (2012). Effect of hydro-priming duration on’ germination and seedling vigour of rice [Oryza sativa L.] cv. Prasad. Journal of Crop and Weed, 8(1), 65-71. Retrieved from PDF

Shiono, K., Ogawa, S., Yamazaki, S., Isoda, H., Fujimura, T., Nakazono, M., & Colmer, T. D. (2011). Contrasting dynamics of radial O2-loss barrier induction and aerenchyma formation in rice roots of two lengths. Annals of Botany, 107(1), 89–99. crossref

Singh, R. K., Singh, V. P., & Singh, C. V. (1994). Agronomic assessment of “beushening” in rainfed lowland rice cultivation in Bihar, India. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 51(3), 271–280. crossref

Stevens, G., Vories, E., Heiser, J., & Rhine, M. (2012). Experimentation on cultivation of rice irrigated with a center pivot system. In T. S. Lee (Ed.), Irrigation systems and practices in challenging environments (pp. 233-254). Rijeka, Croatia: InTech. Retrieved from PDF

Thornton, J. M., & Powell, A. A. (1995). Prolonged aerated hydration for improvement of seed quality in Brassica oleracea L. Annals of Applied Biology, 127(1), 183–189. crossref

Woodstock, L. W. (1976). Progress report on the seed vigor testing handbook. Association of Official Seed Analysts Newsletter, 50(2), 1-78.

Yamauchi, T., Shimamura, S., Nakazono, M., & Mochizuki, T. (2013). Aerenchyma formation in crop species: A review. Field Crops Research, 152, 8–16. crossref

DOI: http://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v40i1.1457

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.