The Endophytic Bacteria, Salicylic Acid, and their Combination as Inducers of Rice Resistance Against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

Christoffol Leiwakabessy, Meity Suradji Sinaga, Kikin H. Mutaqien, Trikoesoemaningtyas Trikoesoemaningtyas, Giyanto Giyanto

Abstract


Bacterial leaf damage or blight brought by bacteria Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (X. oryzae pv. oryzae) is considered as an extremely serious disease of rice worldwide, including Indonesia. Induced resistance using chemical and biological agents was considered as a method to control the disease. The objectives of this research were to analyze of endophytic bacteria (Lysinibacillus sphaericus/L.sphaericus) and salicylic acid as the inducers of rice resistance against X. oryzae pv. oryzae. This study used three-factorial incompletely randomized designs to study the effect of endophytic bacteria and salicylic acid on three varieties of rice. The results of the study showed that endophytic bacteria and salicylic acid induced rice resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae. This endophytic bacterium was also able to increase the plant height (AUPHGC), the number of tillers (AUNTGC), and the number of productive tillers. The application of salicylic acid at the concentrations of 10 mM was able to suppress the BLB disease and increased the number of tillers and 1000-grain weight. The result of study showed that the endophytic bacteria and salicylic acid could induce resistance of rice varities against BLB disease and increased the number of productive tillers.

Keywords


Induced resistance; Lysinibacillus sphaericus; Salicylic acid; X. oryzae pv. oryzae

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anuradha, V. E., Jaleel, C. A., Salem, M. A., Gomathinayagam, M., & Panneerselvam, R. (2010). Plant growth regulators induced changes in antioxidant potential and andrographolide content in Andrographis paniculata Wall.ex Nees. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 98(2), 312–316. crossref

Arunachalam, C., & Gayathri, P. (2010). Studies on bioprospecting of endophytic bacteria from the medicinal plant of Andrographis paniculata for their antimicrobial activity and antibiotic susceptibility pattern. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, 2(4), 68–68. Retrieved from PDF

Babu, R. M., Sajeena, A., Samundeeswari, A. V, Sreedhar, A., Vidhyasekeran, P., & Reddy, M. S. (2003). Induction of bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) resistance in rice by treatment with acibenzolar-S-methyl. Annals of Applied Biology, 143(3), 333–340. crossref

Chen, C., Belanger, R. R., Benhamou, N., & Paulitz, T. C. (2000). Defense enzymes induced in cucumber roots by treatment with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Pythium aphanidermatum. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 56(1), 13–23. crossref

Chung, E. J., Hossain, M. T., Khan, A., Kim, K. H., Jeon, C. O., & Chung, Y. R. (2015). Bacillus oryzicola sp. Nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from the roots of rice with antimicrobial, plant growth promoting, and systemic resistance inducing activities in rice. Plant Pathology Journal, 31(2), 152–164. crossref

Cooke, B. M. (1998). Disease assessment and yield loss. In D. G. Jones (Eds.), The epidemiology of plant diseases (pp. 42-72). Dordrecht, NL: Springer. crossref

Faoro, F., & Gozzo, F. (2015). Is modulating virus virulence by induced systemic resistance realistic? Plant Science, 234, 1–13. crossref

Gnanamanickam, S. S., Vasudevan, P., & Velusamy, P. (2004). Biological control of bacterial blight of rice in India with rice-associated bacteria: Insights into mecanisms. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Bacterial Blight of Rice, Tsukuba, Japan.

Guo, B., Liang, Y., & Zhu, Y. (2009). Does salicylic acid regulate antioxidant defense system, cell death, cadmium uptake and partitioning to acquire cadmium tolerance in rice? Journal of Plant Physiology, 166(1), 20–31. crossref

Hammerschmidt, R., Nuckles, E. M., & Kuć, J. (1982). Association of enhanced peroxidase activity with induced systemic resistance of cucumber to Colletotrichum lagenarium. Physiological Plant Pathology, 20(1), 77–82. crossref

Hayat, Q., Hayat, S., Irfan, M., & Ahmad, A. (2010). Effect of exogenous salicylic acid under changing environment: A review. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 68(1), 14–25. crossref

Hifni, H. R., & Kardin, M. K. (1998). Grouping of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae isolates using IRRI near-isogenic lines of rice. Hayati, 5(3), 66-72.

Hoerussalam, Purwantoro, A., & Khaeruni, A. (2013). Induksi ketahanan tanaman jagung (Zea mays L.) terhadap penyakit bulai melalui seed treatment serta pewarisannya pada generasi S1 [Induced resistance of downy mildew on maize (Zea mays L.) by seed treatment and its inheritance in S1 generation]. Ilmu Pertanian, 16(2), 42-59. Retrieved from website

IRRI. (1996). Standard evaluation system for rice (4th ed.). Manila, PH: International Rice Research Institute.

Joseph, B., & Priya, R. M. (2011). Bioactive compounds from endophytes and their potential in pharmaceutical effect: A review. American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1(3), 291–309. crossref

Khan, A. L., Waqas, M., Hamayun, M., Al-Harrasi, A., Al-Rawahi, A., & Lee, I.-J. (2013). Co-synergism of endophyte Penicillium resedanum LK6 with salicylic acid helped Capsicum annuum in biomass recovery and osmotic stress mitigation. BMC Microbiology, 13(1), 51. crossref

Lanna-filho, R., Souza, R. M., Magalhães, M. M., Villela, L., Zanotto, E., Ribeiro-Júnior, P. M., & Resende, M. L. V. (2013). Induced defense responses in tomato against bacterial spot by proteins synthesized by endophytic bacteria. Tropical Plant Pathology, 38(4), 295–302. crossref

Lin, L., & Xu, X. (2013). Indole-3-acetic acid production by endophytic streptomyces sp. En-1 isolated from medicinal plants. Current Microbiology, 67(2), 209–217. crossref

Madden, L. V., Hughes, G., & van den Bosch, F. (2007). The study of plant disease epidemics. St. Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society (APS Press).

Mallick, C. P. & Singh, M. B. (Eds.). (1980). Plant enzymology and histo-enzymology. New Delhi, IN: Kalyani Publisher.

Mattos, K. A., Pádua, V. L. M., Romeiro, A., Hallack, L. F., Neves, B. C., Ulisses, T. M. U., … Mendonça-Previato, L. (2008). Endophytic colonization of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by the diazotrophic bacterium Burkholderia kururiensis and its ability to enhance plant growth. Anais Da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 80(3), 477–493. crossref

Melnick, R. L., Suárez, C., Bailey, B. A., & Backman, P. A. (2011). Isolation of endophytic endospore-forming bacteria from Theobroma cacao as potential biological control agents of cacao diseases. Biological Control, 57(3), 236–245. crossref

Mur, L. A. J., Kenton, P., Atzorn, R., Miersch, O., & Wasternack, C. (2006). The outcomes of concentration-specific interactions between salicylate and jasmonate signaling include synergy, antagonism, and oxidative stress leading to cell death. Plant Physiology, 140(1), 249–262. crossref

Nagasubramaniam, A., Pathmanabhan, G., & Mallika, V. (2007). Studies on improving production potential of baby corn with foliar spray of plant growth regulators. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 21, 154-157.

Ou, S. H. (1985). Rice diseases (2nd ed.). London, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.

Pan, S. Q., Ye, X. S., & Kuć, J. (1991). Association of β-1,3-glucanase activity and isoform pattern with systemic resistance to blue mould in tobacco induced by stem injection with Peronospora tabacina or leaf inoculation with tobacco mosaic virus. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 39(1), 25–39. crossref

Parida, I., Damayanti, T. A., & Giyanto. (2014). Potensi bakteri endofit sebagai agens penginduksi ketahanan tanaman padi terhadap Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae [Potential of endophytic bacteria as inducers agents rice resistance against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae]. Paper presented at the Proceedings of National Seminar on Plant Protection Indonesia II, Plant Protection Strategy in Strengthening Agricultural Systems Facing the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) and the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) in 2015 (pp. 189-197). Bogor, ID: Faculty of Agriculture IPB.

Ramamoorthy, V. (2001). Induction of systemic resistance by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in crop plants against pests and diseases. Crop Protection, 20(1), 1–11. crossref

Silverman, P., Seskar, M., Kanter, D., Schweizer, P., Metraux, J. P., & Raskin, I. (1995). Salicylic acid in rice (biosynthesis, conjugation, and possible role). Plant Physiology, 108(2), 633–639. crossref

Singh, U. P., & Prithiviraj, B. (1997). Neemazal, a product of neem (Azadirachta indica), induces resistance in pea (Pisum sativum) against Erysiphe pisi. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 51(3), 181–194. crossref

Strobel, G., & Daisy, B. (2003). Bioprospecting for microbial endophytes and their natural products. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 67(4), 491–502. crossref

Sudir, Nuryanto, B., & Kadi, T. S. (2012). Epidemiologi, patotipe, dan strategi pengendalian penyakit hawar daun bakteri pada tanaman padi [Epidemiology, pathotypes, and strategy to control bacterial leaf blight on rice plant]. Iptek Tanaman Pangan, 7(2), 79-87. Retrieved from PDF

Suparyono, Sudir, & Suprihanto. (2004). Pathotype profile of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae isolates from the rice ecosystem in Java. Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, 5(2), 63-69. Retrieved from website

Suprihatno, B., Daradjat, A. A., Satoto, Suwarno, Lubis, E., Baehaki, Sudir, Indrasari, S. D., Wardana, I. P., & Mejaya, M. J. (2011). Deskripsi varietas padi [Description of rice varieties]. Subang, ID: Balai Besar Penelitian Tanaman Padi.

Tamaoki, D., Seo, S., Yamada, S., Kano, A., Miyamoto, A., Shishido, H., … Gomi, K. (2013). Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice. Plant Signaling & Behavior, 8(6), e24260. crossref

Tasliah. (2012). Gen ketahanan tanaman padi terhadap bakteri hawar daun (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) [Resistance gene on rice to bacterial leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae]. Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, 31(3), 103-112. Retrieved from website

Van Der Plank, J. E. (1963). Plant diseases: Epidemics and control. New York, USA: Academic Press. Retrieved from PDF

Vlot, A. C., Dempsey, D. A., & Klessig, D. F. (2009). Salicylic acid, a multifaceted hormone to combat disease. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 47(1), 177–206. crossref

Walters, D., & Heil, M. (2007). Costs and trade-offs associated with induced resistance. Physiological & Molecular Plant Pathology, 71(1–3), 3–17. crossref

Yi, H.-S., Yang, J. W., & Ryu, C.-M. (2013). ISR meets SAR outside: Additive action of the endophyte Bacillus pumilus INR7 and the chemical inducer, benzothiadiazole, on induced resistance against bacterial spot in field-grown pepper. Frontiers in Plant Science, 4, 122. crossref




DOI: http://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v40i1.1029

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.